Saturday 15 April 2023
08.30 - 10.30
Historiographic Approaches to Eastern Europe
Victoriagatan 13, Victoriasalen
Dénes Legeza :
The Impact of 'Promise of Rewards' on the Creation of Works
Carolina García Sanz
The promise of reward (Auslobung) is a strange legal institution of copyright, accepted and widely used in different areas of life for centuries. When a hero is needed to save a country, the old king offers the beautiful princess and half his kingdom as a reward. Similarly, valuable financial reward ... (Show more)
The promise of reward (Auslobung) is a strange legal institution of copyright, accepted and widely used in different areas of life for centuries. When a hero is needed to save a country, the old king offers the beautiful princess and half his kingdom as a reward. Similarly, valuable financial reward is offered to those helping to find bandits in hiding or for finding lost items. In their purpose, those competitions where exceptional sports achievements are rewarded or the creation of some work of art is initiated do not differ from such announcements. However, from the perspective of obligation and copyright alike it is questionable what relationship is established between the awarding authority/person and the creator. It is also a question who will own the copyright of the completed work.
In copyright licensing, publishing and employment contracts, or non-contractual illegally caused damages generate existing and valid obligations. From this perspective it is not necessary to review the legal nature of these. However, the promise of reward differs from traditional contracts, because it qualifies as a unilateral legal relationship. In Hungary the promise of reward was used in practice before it was accepted by jurisprudence as a valid matter of fact generating obligations.
After analyzing the general legal nature of the promise of reward the study presents the role and function of the legal institution in Hungarian cultural life in the 19th-20th century. (Show less)
Maria Tatar-Dan :
Culture, Tourism and National Identity in Transylvania in the Interwar Period
In the aftermath of the Great War, the Romanian Kingdom had almost doubled its territory and population by incorporating the provinces of Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bucovina. Although, these provinces had a large Romanian population, they were politically, culturally, economically dominated by other ethnic groups. The “Great Union” proclaimed by the ... (Show more)
In the aftermath of the Great War, the Romanian Kingdom had almost doubled its territory and population by incorporating the provinces of Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bucovina. Although, these provinces had a large Romanian population, they were politically, culturally, economically dominated by other ethnic groups. The “Great Union” proclaimed by the National Assemblies of 1918 and recognized by the Paris Peace Conference had to be put into practice. Although the Romanian state quickly integrated politically and administratively these provinces, there was also the issue of integrating the population who lived here in the model of the society Romania had been building. And it was not only the issue of integrating the former dominating ethnic groups (not in terms of numbers but in terms of power) but also the Romanians, who had lived and had defined themselves as a national community in a different background. So, people from the two sides of the Carpathians had to know each other, to share their histories, their backgrounds, their customs and habits. It was not a work from the ground up, as cultural and social contacts existed before the war, but this was a new context, and the ties needed to be extended to a larger part of the population. The main issue addressed by the present paper is how cultural and social connection established through tourism and travel contributed to the feeling of belonging to the same national community from the perspective of the Romanians from Transylvania. (Show less)
Anca Elisabeta Tatay, Ana Catan-Spenchiu :
Text and Image in Old Romanian Books on Napoleonic Wars Printed in Buda (1814-1815)
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the social, political and historical events that were taking place in Europe, the great French army, its retreat from the Russian front in fierce weather conditions, the fall of Napoleon, the struggle led by Tsar Alexander I and the allied forces to “reclaim” ... (Show more)
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the social, political and historical events that were taking place in Europe, the great French army, its retreat from the Russian front in fierce weather conditions, the fall of Napoleon, the struggle led by Tsar Alexander I and the allied forces to “reclaim” Europe, became the main topic promoted by the European intellectuals. In the absence of relevant newspapers or journals, the reader’s opinion was formed based on short pieces of writing, either originals or translations, dedicated to the events of the time and the actors involved. In this context, the Printing House of the University of Buda became an important source of information for Romanian readers everywhere with regard to the events and sufferings brought by the war and the actions of the involved parties. Întâmpl?rile r?zboiului fran?ozilor ?i întoarcerea lor de la Moscva (1814) [The events of the French war and their return from Moscow], Trista întâmplare a cet??ii Dresda de la spargerea încoace a podului, p?n? la ap?rarea cet??ii (1814) [The sad events regarding the citadel of Dresden from the fall of its bridge until its defense], Scurt? ar?tare despre luare Parisului ?i alte întâmpl?ri (1814) [Short overview of the conquest of Paris and other events], Vrednica de pomenire biruin??, ce în vremea noastr? s-au f?cut, sau piramida cea din tunuri în?l?at? în marea cetate Moscva (1815) [The worthy mentioning of the victory that happened in our time or the great pyramid of cannons in the city of Moscow], Napoleon Bonaparte, ce au fost ?i ce iaste (1815) [Napoleon Bonaparte, who he was and who he is], Ar?tarea st?pânirei ?i a caracterului lui Alexandru I. Împ?ratul a toat? Rossia (1815) [An account on the rule and character of Alexander I, Emperor of all Russia] represent translations that centered on the major contemporary events, aiming not at instructing its readership, but rather at highlighting the dangers of the French imperialism. Four engravings, with reference to the Napoleonic age, from the Romanian books printed in Buda in the years 1814-1815 represent incontestable epoch documents which, at that time, must have raised a great curiosity among the readers eager to know the course of events of their time, which as it is well-known, troubled the whole Europe. This paper aims at investigating a less known area of cultural contact and we want to illustrate how the Romanian culture came in direct contact with the historical realities of the time and point out through image and text how these booklets managed to popularize the important personalities and developments of their age. (Show less)
Nikolai Vukov :
Cultures of Remembrance, Politics of Commemoration: Transborder Memorial Visits to the Sites of Bulgaria’s Participation in World War II
The period after 1945 in Eastern Europe was marked by the pervasive presence of commemorative ceremonies dedicated to the fallen in the war against Nazi Germany. Whilst the major attention fell on the soldiers of the Soviet army, the contributions of the local armies to the war victory also received ... (Show more)
The period after 1945 in Eastern Europe was marked by the pervasive presence of commemorative ceremonies dedicated to the fallen in the war against Nazi Germany. Whilst the major attention fell on the soldiers of the Soviet army, the contributions of the local armies to the war victory also received due attention. In the case of Bulgaria, this aspect of war-time effort in the last phase of the war held particular importance due to the country’s long-time involvement on the side of Nazi Germany during the Second World War, which required particular efforts of presenting it in the ranks of the victors, alongside the Soviet troops. Albeit many of the officers that participated in battles with Nazi troops in the territories of Yugoslavia, Hungary and Austria were repressed by the communist regime upon their return to Bulgaria, the memory of the war-time experience had a lasting presence in the decades after 1945, acquiring various representations in monuments, museums, literary forms, films, etc. Over the years, a steady practice of organized visits was maintained to sites of battles in Novi Sad, Vukovar, Sremska Mitrovica, Harkan, and Pecs, and these visits remain as a steady practice of transborder commemoration until today.
The current paper will present the changes in transborder commemorations related to Bulgaria’s participation in World War II, as presented in organized visits to former Yugoslavia and Hungary after 1945 and in the three decades after the fall of the communist regime in 1989. The paper will outline the policies of commemoration in these three states during the post-war decades and the processes of consolidating memorial sites, organizing transborder visits, and developing ritual scenarios during the communist period. With regards to the years after 1989, the attention will be focused on the dissolution of the previous ideological narratives and the emerging of new interpretative standpoints in developing transborder memorial activities. The paper will put a special emphasis on the changes in commemorative practices over the past three decades and in the undertaking of organized, but also spontaneous, grassroots and tourist initiatives to war memorials abroad. (Show less)