Friday 14 April 2023
11.00 - 13.00
Kinship Systems and Families
Sara Ala-Hynnilä :
Siblings and Emotions during Disagreements in 17th Century England
During the early modern period, those with the ability, time, and the financial means took up writing down their memories or communicating with each other through correspondence. The traces these have left for us to examine reveal the lives of the aristocrats, the gentry, and the middling sort and the ... (Show more)
During the early modern period, those with the ability, time, and the financial means took up writing down their memories or communicating with each other through correspondence. The traces these have left for us to examine reveal the lives of the aristocrats, the gentry, and the middling sort and the way they interacted with their families. Although the history of the family is a well-established field, the history of the siblings has not received as much attention.
This paper examines how 17th century English siblings expressed emotions to each other. This, furthermore, connected to various other themes, such as power and duty, which were influenced, for example, by age and gender. Different self-written documents, namely diaries, autobiographies, and letters, reveal complex sibling relationships with the help of content analysis. A careful examination of individual contexts is necessary to reveal the variety of ways in which power and duty could appear and be used in how siblings, including, but not limited to, Alice Thornton, Samuel Pepys, Elizabeth Freke, and Thomas Meautys, conveyed their emotions.
The paper gives an overview of the subject by introducing how siblings expressed various emotions to each other within the themes of disagreements, emotions and actions, and avoiding, changing, and replacing emotions. However, the presentation will specifically focus on highlighting emotional expressions during disputes and how this was connected to age differences, the use of power, and gender. Analysis on this revealed a few ways to express anger, such as scolding and contrasting one's own experience as a victim acting in a morally superior manner and the other person’s role as an offender. On the other hand, the analysis also highlighted how sisters could take part in quarrels and how younger siblings could act and express their emotions in these kinds of situations. (Show less)
Johan Junkka, Lotta Vikström & Erling Lundevaller :
Family Support and Disability-related Mortality in Sweden, 1900-1959
Social support, especially that of family, is an important factor in mitigating risks for people with disabilities. Overall, everyday interactions between family members can improve the health and safety of disabled populations. Families can help to provide proper nutrition, emotional support, ensure vaccination, provide protection from violence and create an ... (Show more)
Social support, especially that of family, is an important factor in mitigating risks for people with disabilities. Overall, everyday interactions between family members can improve the health and safety of disabled populations. Families can help to provide proper nutrition, emotional support, ensure vaccination, provide protection from violence and create an overall environment of safety and trust which increases the survival chances of people with disabilities. This is especially true in context with limited public support for individuals, such as in Sweden in the early 20th century. In this study, we analyze how family support in the form of the proximity of relatives and marital status was associated with the mortality risks for people with a disability in Sweden, 1900-1959. We use longitudinal data from Sweden with information on family relationships, geographical location and disability status, across the life course. Using Cox proportional hazard models we estimate the survival chances by family support and disability. Preliminary analysis shows that marriage improved survival chances for disabled men, while not for women. Proximity to family members, on the other hand, was as protective for disabled women and men as their non-disabled peers. These preliminary results show that the role of family support for the health of people with disabilities is gendered. (Show less)
Daniela Marza :
Family Networks as Instruments of Power – Elite Women, Kinship and Public Life in Transylvania, 1850-1920
Members of the Transylvanian elite, whether political, economic or intellectual, were linked by numerous kinship ties (Popovici 2013). The present article aims to investigate these ties in the context of public activities patronized and supported by elite women; due to the complexity of Transylvanian society (home to more than seven ... (Show more)
Members of the Transylvanian elite, whether political, economic or intellectual, were linked by numerous kinship ties (Popovici 2013). The present article aims to investigate these ties in the context of public activities patronized and supported by elite women; due to the complexity of Transylvanian society (home to more than seven ethnicities and seven denominations), this study will focus only on the Romanian elite.
Since 1850, numerous women's unions with educational, cultural and philanthropic activities have been established in Transylvania (in 1914, for example, there were almost 100 such unions). Although their declared purpose was not political, their activity strongly supported the efforts of the Romanian political class for national emancipation and for political rights for the Romanians in Transylvania (?tiger 1989). Some of these unions were represented (by 60 women) at the Great National Assembly in Alba Iulia on 1 December 1918, which voted to unite Transylvania with Romania at the end of the First World War.
The women leading these unions and involved in these political actions had one thing in common: they were, without exception, daughters and/or wives of influential men in their communities. I mention, as an example, the Romanian Women's Union of Brasov, founded in 1850, the first of the Romanian women's unions in Transylvania. Its first president was Maria Nicolau, daughter of a wealthy merchant from Brasov who was heavily involved in the life of the community (Ioan Cepescu), married to Dumitru S. Nicolau, owner of the first oil refinery in Transylvania, one of the councilors of the municipality of Brasov; one of her daughters, Sevastia, was also involved in the work of the union, being married to the politician and businessman Iacob Mure?ianu, owner of one of the most influential Romanian newspapers in Transylvania. The cashier of the union (later its president) was Ana Orghidan, married to the merchant Rudolf Orghidan, involved in joint projects with Maria Nicolau's father (Baltescu 1967).
There are enough indications to suggest that the activity of elite women involved in public life in Transylvania was closely linked to a network of family ties. On the one hand, these women benefited from the support and influence of their husbands and/or fathers; on the other hand, their philanthropic and cultural work supported the political activity pursued by the men.
The present paper aims to reconstruct the family networks of the women at the head of these union in the form of a database that will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms that governed the political life of the Romanians in Transylvania. Sources such as: press, memoirs, archive documents, monographs and articles on this topic will be used.
Vlad Popovici, Family Relations and Group Mobilization within the Romanian Political Elite in Transylvania (1861-1900), Transylvanian Review, 1/2013, p. 107-118.
Simona ?tiger, Mi?carea feminist? din Transilvania. Constituirea ?i evolu?ia reuniunilor de femei, Crisia, XIX, 1989, p. 439-454.
Mircea B?ltescu, Contribu?ii la istoricul Reuniunii femeilor române din Bra?ov, Cumidava, 1/1967, p. 191-210. (Show less)
Mary Nagata :
Urban Graveyard Theory Revisited in Mid Nineteenth Century Kyoto
Combining analyses of fertility, mortality and migration using the annual individual faith and population surveys (Shumon Ninbetsu Aratame Cho) of 30 Kyoto neighborhoods reveals that the proportion of migrants in the population follows the population trends. It seems that the migrant contribution to the population was higher when the economy ... (Show more)
Combining analyses of fertility, mortality and migration using the annual individual faith and population surveys (Shumon Ninbetsu Aratame Cho) of 30 Kyoto neighborhoods reveals that the proportion of migrants in the population follows the population trends. It seems that the migrant contribution to the population was higher when the economy was good and lower when in crisis. Moreover, fertility and mortality, immigration and emigration from the neighborhood population appears to balance. Putting the pieces together suggests a different way of understanding urban population and migration (Show less)
Joana-Maria Pujades-Mora, Joaquín Ruíz :
Siblings and Parents Marrying the Same Day: Simultaneous Marriages as Family Partnership Strategy in the Barcelona Area, 16th – 19th Centuries
Kinship marriages can be considered a very relevant marital strategy to generate and maintain family wealth and social status. To this effect, it has been observed an explosion of consanguinity in most European territories during the 18th century, reaching its peak at the beginning of the 20th century (Boudjaaba, Dousset, ... (Show more)
Kinship marriages can be considered a very relevant marital strategy to generate and maintain family wealth and social status. To this effect, it has been observed an explosion of consanguinity in most European territories during the 18th century, reaching its peak at the beginning of the 20th century (Boudjaaba, Dousset, & Mouysset, 2016; Calvi & Blutrach-Jelin, 2010, Fuster Siebert & Colantonio, 2003). Catalonia also shows this trend, although its intensity values are much lower than in the other territories studied. In view of this particular behaviour, it can be sensed that other models of marriage alliances may have relevance in the Catalan marriage market beyond the classical ones of consanguinity and affinity between the spouses. In particular, simultaneous marriages between sibling couples, whether parallel or crossed, appear as an alternative to consanguinity and affinity (Bras & Van Tilburg, 2007; Manzano Ledesma, 2019). However, the literature has not given them as much prominence.
Concurrent marriages favoured and reinforced horizontal ties between families as a consequence of the renewal of the same alliance in the same generation (Collomp, 1977; Pérez García, 2002). Nevertheless, this practice requires the existence of an abundance of marriageable sons and daughters of similar ages. In fact, the improvements in life expectancy observed in the 18th century, especially for adult ages, would create the necessary conditions. In turn, the inheritance system in Catalonia, based on the sole heir, may partly explain the value of this strategy. This type of marriage favoured the circulation of wives, and daughters could be exchanged for daughters-in-law without paying the dowry (Barbazza, 1998; Derouet, 1996; Sobrado Correa, 1998). On the other hand, marriage between sibling couples is a practice outside ecclesiastical prohibitions and dispensations, since neither affinity nor consanguinity are considered at the time of marriage, but only after the marriage has taken place.
The aim of this paper is to assess the intensity and determinants of sibling simultaneous marriages along the 16th – 19th century in the Barcelona Area using the unique Barcelona Historical Marriage Database (BHMD). Considering the quality and continuity of the data collected in the BHMD for this study we will use the time period between 1540 and 1880 and focus on the Barcelona Officiality or Barcelona Area -main deanship of Barcelona’s Diocese-, which includes the city of Barcelona and its surrounding area. This geographical and temporal selection compiles information for 454,267 marriages.
The preliminary results show how the number of sibling simultaneous marriages was comparable to the number of consanguineous marriages identified by isonymy. Moreover, other concurrent marriages have been identified such those involving widowed fathers and mothers and their respective sons and daughters, and those between pairs of cousins. In the Barcelona area, all together represent a higher incidence than consanguineous marriages. In addition, to determine whether structural determinants ( size of the population, geographical isolation and abundance or rarity of the spouses' surnames) and/or social determinants (tax category, socio-occupational group and ability-to-pay capacity) drove this type of unions, a multi-level approach will be applied. (Show less)