Preliminary Programme

Wed 12 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 13 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 14 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 15 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00

All days
Go back

Friday 14 April 2023 16.30 - 18.30
M-12 ETH01b Cambridge History of Global Migrations New Insights into the History of Global Migrations – Settlers, Priests and Refugees
C24
Network: Ethnicity and Migration Chair: Catia Antunes
Organizer: Catia Antunes Discussant: Marcelo Borges
Robert Hellyer : Early Modern Japan: a State with Limited Migration
This paper will explain how established structures of trade and diplomacy, combined with interfaces with surrounding areas in East Asia and the Pacific, meant that early modern Japan (circa 1600 to 1850) never witnessed significant outward migration. Moreover it will explore the ways in which the successful exploitation of ... (Show more)
This paper will explain how established structures of trade and diplomacy, combined with interfaces with surrounding areas in East Asia and the Pacific, meant that early modern Japan (circa 1600 to 1850) never witnessed significant outward migration. Moreover it will explore the ways in which the successful exploitation of domestic labor in the production of key commodities, such as silver and sugar, discouraged inflows of slave, indentured, or free labor like those that occurred in other parts of the early modern world. Finally, the paper will highlight the prevalence of Japanese castaways scattered around the Pacific, a small-scale outward migration that resulted from the Japanese archipelago’s proximity to trans-Pacific maritime currents. (Show less)

José Pedro Paiva : Migrations of Catholic Clerics 16-18 Centuries
Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, Christianism, Islam, and Buddhism increased their presence in the world far from their original areas of influence, creating more or less global religious, cultural, economic and institutional networks. This tendency was in part intertwined with the expansion of some Early Modern empires like the ... (Show more)
Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, Christianism, Islam, and Buddhism increased their presence in the world far from their original areas of influence, creating more or less global religious, cultural, economic and institutional networks. This tendency was in part intertwined with the expansion of some Early Modern empires like the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British, Ottoman, Safavid, and the Mughal, and with the policies of the Tumeds in Mongolia.
This implied a massive migration process of ‘clerics’ throughout the world. On this presentation we will only focus Catholic clergy long-distance migratory movement, including in this approach three types of mobilities: permanent migration, temporary migration, and circulations within the same religious order, empire, or faith. We will provide a fluid historical narrative concerning the characteristics, purposes and impacts of these clerical Catholic migrations. Moreover an attempt will also be made to summarize the major impacts the actions of these groups provoked in the landscape and in the populations they contacted. (Show less)

Marlou Schrover : Refugee Migration from a Global and Historical Perspective
In the preparatory discussions of the 1951 Refugee Convention agreement was reached on the definition of a 'refugee'. The application of the definition led to extensive debates. The definition was more open and more fluid than those who agreed upon it thought it was. Also before the Refugee Convention was ... (Show more)
In the preparatory discussions of the 1951 Refugee Convention agreement was reached on the definition of a 'refugee'. The application of the definition led to extensive debates. The definition was more open and more fluid than those who agreed upon it thought it was. Also before the Refugee Convention was concluded, there was consensus on what a refugee was, and also before that there were large debates on how to apply definitions. In this paper I look at changes in the definition and perception of refugees: moving from the ideal and most desired refugees to non-legal categorisations such as bogus or fake refugees, economic refugees and climate refugees. (Show less)

Bertrand van Ruymbeke : North America – Migrations and Settlement
In order to build overseas empires in the Americas, companies and States needed to promote emigration as colonies could neither be governed sustainably nor become productive and prosperous without settlers and slaves. Mercantilism designed colonies primarily to produce communities, exotic or not, to satisfy the growing needs of expanding metropolitan ... (Show more)
In order to build overseas empires in the Americas, companies and States needed to promote emigration as colonies could neither be governed sustainably nor become productive and prosperous without settlers and slaves. Mercantilism designed colonies primarily to produce communities, exotic or not, to satisfy the growing needs of expanding metropolitan consumer markets. Colonies therefore met the dual objective of territorial expansion in the Americas and expanding trade with the metropole. Colonial powers needed to stimulate emigration overseas by promoting recently founded colonies and sponsoring the transportation of settlers. Yet debates on whether emigration strengthened the metropole through the development of colonies and transatlantic trade or whether emigration weakened the mother country by depleting its demographic resources led States to alternatively encourage or restrict the outflow of people and recruit foreign migrants. France and England followed the same goals with the same means but with radically contrasting results. In the seventeenth century as North America was perceived as a largely inhospitable land most French and English settlers were unfree. In the eighteenth century life in the British North American colonies improved considerably. British America therefore became a magnet for an expanding pool of free migrants. Canada and Louisiana, however, remained unattractive in the eyes of French prospective migrants who had other destinations, overseas or continental, available to them. Thus, by the 1760s British North America enjoyed a population of over 1.2 million people and French North America fewer than 100,000. Demographics played a decisive role in the imperial struggle over the control of North America between France and Great Britain in the mid-eighteenth century even if emigration turned out to be overall a less important factor than natural increase in colonial population growth.
At the time of the Revolution and in the early years of the American republic, immigration to the United States continued to rise. Emigration was no longer sponsored but spontaneous as the United States spread in Western Europe the image of a land of individual success and of refuge in time of crisis. In the 1790s Irish and French people (from France and from Saint-Domingue) flocked to America. From then on it was Congress that attempted to control immigration flows and designed policies of naturalization, alternatively generous and restrictive depending on the domestic political and economic issues and the international context. Canada, an imperial British dominion with a large French population after 1763, drew migrants from England, Scotland, and Ireland but in lower proportions than the United States.
The movement of Europeans to North America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was therefore truly a massive phenomenon. Estimates places the number of migrants to the thirteen colonies and the United States from 1620 to 1780 at roughly 785,000 people to whom must be added 75,000 setters to the French colonies (before 1763) for a minimum total of 860,000, but most likely over 900,000 if we count British and Irish migrants to British Canada after the American Revolution. In other words, nearly a million Europeans crossed the Atlantic to settle in what is now the United States and Canada from 1607 to 1815. Nearly half of these migrants (470,000) were British and Irish. After them were the German and the French, with around 100,000 individuals each. Around 70 percent of these migrants crossed the Atlantic under some form of servitude and over 70 percent were male. Since then immigration, has remained a fundamental issue in the history of the United States and Canada. The United States in particular fulfilled Thomas Paine’s emphatic premonition, stated in Common Sense in 1776, that it would become “an asylum for mankind.” (Show less)



Theme by Danetsoft and Danang Probo Sayekti inspired by Maksimer