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Wed 18 March
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 19 March
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Fri 20 March
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    11.00 - 13.00
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Sat 21 March
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    16.00 - 17.00

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Wednesday 18 March 2020 08.30 - 10.30
F-1 EDU04 Circulation of Knowledge and Education across Professional, National and Ethnic Borders, ca 1880-1950
P.N. van Eyckhof 3, 002
Network: Education and Childhood Chairs: -
Organizer: Anders Ottosson Discussant: Ida Milne
Ulrika Lagerlöf Nilsson : Ethnic and Professional Clashes: Migrating Midwifery Cultures and Obstetrics in late 19th Century Chicago
Despite his role as founder of one of the first midwifery schools in the USA, Swedish physician Sven Windrow (1853–1937), has largely eluded historical attention. Opening in Chicago in 1889, the school sought to duplicate the Swedish midwifery training program to cater to the late 19th century wave of Swedish ... (Show more)
Despite his role as founder of one of the first midwifery schools in the USA, Swedish physician Sven Windrow (1853–1937), has largely eluded historical attention. Opening in Chicago in 1889, the school sought to duplicate the Swedish midwifery training program to cater to the late 19th century wave of Swedish immigrants to the city. The school intended to train Swedish women to deliver babies within their own communities, but what ensued was a power struggle between Chicago’s American physicians over scope of practice. This paper investigates the points of contention, such as Swedish midwives use of instruments, as a window into understanding the transnational circulation of obstetrical traditions during a period of significant immigration. Could the lack of historical recognition regarding Dr Windrow’s school be a consequence of him advocating for a midwifery training incompatible with the professional goals set by North American obstetricians? By comparing information from for example archives (in Chicago and Sweden), letters and articles from newspapers it is possible to find answers to this question. On a general level an analysis of the Swedish midwifery school can deepen our insights about midwifery’s position in the emergent U.S. health care system. On one hand such a study brings new perspectives regarding the role that immigrant communities played in the establishment of Progressive-era health care systems and services, on the other how these communities both challenged and (re)installed gender roles in the medical marketplace. (Show less)

Sasha Mullally : Rural Rejuvenation: Swedish “Manual Education” for Health in Canada, 1903-1912
This paper examined the career of Swedish "slojd" in Canada. A 19th century program of manual training thought to bring mind, body and spirit into harmony, the "sloyd system" [anglicized spelling] caught the attention of William C. Macdonald, a tobacco magnate and well-known early 20th century philanthopist who was enthusiastic ... (Show more)
This paper examined the career of Swedish "slojd" in Canada. A 19th century program of manual training thought to bring mind, body and spirit into harmony, the "sloyd system" [anglicized spelling] caught the attention of William C. Macdonald, a tobacco magnate and well-known early 20th century philanthopist who was enthusiastic about the prospect of reforming rural education. The paper explores the impact of the Macdonald Sloyd Fund, founded in 1901 to funded European study tours and created experimental primary schools in across eastern and Atlantic Canada. While Macdonald is better known for his philanthropic efforts as a patron of McGill University, his exploits in elementary education have received less attention, much less the Swedish influence and origins of key curricula taught within their walls. This paper traces the appeal and influence of sloyd in the schools' manual training programs, exploring the reasons this program appealed to education reformers like Macdonald, the relationship to larger calls for “rural rejuvenation” and economic development in an industrializing nation a century ago. (Show less)

Anders Ottosson : The Hidden European Origins of Osteopathy and Chiropractic – Migrating Medical Knowledge and the Birth of New Concepts, Schools, and Professional Histories
In 1874 and 1895 two new radical medical systems were born in the USA that soon began to spread outside the country. Today osteopathic and chiropractic colleges are found globally. Both systems have been ridiculed by physicians and marveled on by scholars in the history of medicine for their ... (Show more)
In 1874 and 1895 two new radical medical systems were born in the USA that soon began to spread outside the country. Today osteopathic and chiropractic colleges are found globally. Both systems have been ridiculed by physicians and marveled on by scholars in the history of medicine for their mono-causal etiological doctrines, which were totally add odds with bacteriology. To osteopaths and chiropractors diseases were an effect of dislocated joints (in the spine mainly). They were also marketed as new medical sciences. The current understanding is that their bio-medically weird spine-centered etiologies, are pieces of “Americana” with no counterpart in late 19th century European medical discourse. This paper says otherwise. Osteopathy and chiropractic have a European prototype personalized in a London based Swedish physiotherapist that was a prominent figure in a now forgotten and even hidden discourse of mechanical medicine permeating Europe as well as North America. Argued for is that this prototype has eluded scholars because he has been eradicated from different professional histories on both sides of the Atlantic. American osteopaths and chiropractors gave him the “silent treatment” in their respective professional narratives since his seniority threatened their claimed status as scientific inventors, and English orthopedists did the same because they no longer wanted to be recognized as trustees of his "Swedish" therapeutic layman heritage. Hence, did osteopaths, chiropractors, and orthopedists in retrospect successfully blur the past for professional gain in the present. (Show less)

Johan Samuelsson : Sweden and Dewey, Progressive Knowledge traveling between Nations and Institutions 1920-1950
In recent decades the globalisation of educational expertise has intensified. International actors, such as the OECD, for instance provide policy recommendations that influence national school systems. Since the OECD disseminates knowledge on the characteristics of good education, the organisation’s recommendations may be regarded as a type of knowledge circulation on ... (Show more)
In recent decades the globalisation of educational expertise has intensified. International actors, such as the OECD, for instance provide policy recommendations that influence national school systems. Since the OECD disseminates knowledge on the characteristics of good education, the organisation’s recommendations may be regarded as a type of knowledge circulation on education. At the same time, there is a long history of knowledge on education “circulating” across national borders and Sweden provides a good example of how progressive educational ideas have been “imported” from the USA. In this paper the period 1920-1950 is in focus and the aim is to present and analyse how these ideas reached Sweden. Centre of attention lies on how different types of actors (teachers, researchers, and politicians) contributed to the transfer of American progressive education to Swedish schools. The paper shows that the American influence, particularly in the form of John Dewey, not only reached Sweden through well-known elites such as the Myrdals. Consequently, it was not a simple case of “importing” Dewey, as described by Popkwewitz (2006), who depicts the dissemination of Dewey to the rest of the world as a simple American export. (Show less)

Merja Uotila : Transfer of Craft Skills to the Next Generation. A Case Study of Early Modern Finnish Apprenticeship Practices
In Europe, the tripartite career pattern of artisans (apprentice-journeyman-master) have been generally associated with craft guilds and urban environments. Nevertheless, rural artisans were also capable of training young boys to become skilful artisans, who would then serve their rural customers. In early modern Finland, rural artisans had a lawful right ... (Show more)
In Europe, the tripartite career pattern of artisans (apprentice-journeyman-master) have been generally associated with craft guilds and urban environments. Nevertheless, rural artisans were also capable of training young boys to become skilful artisans, who would then serve their rural customers. In early modern Finland, rural artisans had a lawful right (from the end of 17th century) to take own apprentices. On the other hand, urban artisans and apprentices worked in a legal framework that was set in general guild orders (skråordning from 1669 and 1720) which, for its part, specified the limits of guild activities and apprenticeship practices. For instance, they stipulated a minimum enrolment age and a maximum trial period. Rural artisans had their own traditions, but the guild orders, although they were designed for urban craft guilds, also influenced the norms and training practices of rural artisans.
In this presentation, I compare urban and rural artisans’ vocational training and apprenticeship practices in early modern Finland – where most of the artisans worked in rural environment and craft guilds only operated in towns. I explore the origins, heyday and decline of a craft apprenticeship institution and analyse its meaning to the early modern economy. In order to do that, I examine legal texts, gather information about practices and norms that artisans used, and compare the number of apprentices in towns and rural areas. A more detailed analysis is done in two particular settings; I have chosen one town and one parish for a closer analysis. Here research utilizes prosopographic analysis of apprentices. Time period of research is from late 17th century till end on 19th century. An individual-centred approach provides opportunities to explore the characteristics and differences in apprentice material. I am particularly interested in exploring commonality of practices, and how urban craft guild regulations affected rural conventions. (Show less)

Sietske Van den Wyngaert : Logics of Learning, Apprenticeship in Antwerp between 1550 and 1800
Recent research has questioned the traditional economic model of early modern apprenticeship. In it, learning is considered to have taken place during a first stage, in which the cost of training was high as the master had to invest time and materials in the apprentice. Only during the second stage, ... (Show more)
Recent research has questioned the traditional economic model of early modern apprenticeship. In it, learning is considered to have taken place during a first stage, in which the cost of training was high as the master had to invest time and materials in the apprentice. Only during the second stage, when the apprentice had acquired a sufficient amount of skills, did the master receive a return on training and, hence, could pay a wage. This fundamental imbalance between cost and gaining income implies a constant distrust between both parties, as one was always at risk of economic opportunism by the other. While apprentices were at risk of receiving an inadequate training in the first stage, the scale tipped during the second stage when more productive apprentices were tempted to abscond and seek employment elsewhere at market wages.
This two-stage model is questioned by Patrick Wallis and Chris Minns, who argue that it misrepresents learning as a training activity that required much of the master’s time rather than simply observation and imitation from the part of the apprentice. Moreover, apprentices also contributed by watching the shop, handling deliveries and carrying out basic tasks. Finally, high drop-out rates challenge the traditional model. Studies indicate that 33 to 64 per cent of apprenticeships ended early, implying that earlier acquired skills have to be taken into account in regard to how learning took place. Nonetheless, drop-out rates are mainly based on English sources where minimum terms were an exceptional 7 years. Moreover, it is assumed that drop-out rates were the result of economic opportunism by definition, while cultural studies have indicated that abuse and misbehaviour were important reasons for contract breach too. This paper wants to challenge the predominant assumption that contract breaches were caused by economic strategies by identifying, for the first time, the actual reason for departure for a wide variety of professions. As apprenticeships were not strictly economic transfers of skills but also had a socio-cultural dimension, I want to measure how important economic or cultural matters were in breaking off apprenticeships.
In the context of my PhD-research on long-term transformations in the practice of apprenticeship, I have gathered information through various sources regarding the outsourcing of more than 1600 underprivileged youngsters through more than 3000 unique source entries between 1580 and 1780. I can distinguish between more than 45 reasons for early departure. These reasons are connected to fees and payment modalities, age, wages, term duration, contractual stipulations (like default clauses), boarding practices and skill requirements, so as to pinpoint the apprentice’s incentives to abscond accurately. My overall aim is to determine whether and when transitions occurred as a result of economic processes (e.g. the Industrial Revolution) or cultural processes (e.g. the privatisation of family life). My preliminary findings indicate that economic changes of the 18th century were not (solely) the reason for a business-like relationship between master and apprentices. Rather, the increasingly private nature of family life already drove a wedge between master and apprentice as early as 1650. (Show less)



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