In Hungary, a significant part of research on socialist education policy and education science focuses on the fifties. However, apart from the few exceptions, it seems that Makarenko's work and his place in the socialist education and education policy are among the less studied areas. With this study we are ... (Show more)
In Hungary, a significant part of research on socialist education policy and education science focuses on the fifties. However, apart from the few exceptions, it seems that Makarenko's work and his place in the socialist education and education policy are among the less studied areas. With this study we are trying to reduce this hiatus. In our analysis, we are going to try not to interpret Makarenko and his works, but to explain how the contemporary educator scholars interpreted them in a pedagogical and political-ideological context.
We are looking for answers to the following questions in our research:
1. What are the educational science groups that interpret Makarenko's personality and work and implement his views on teachers?
2. How did the macro-level political and educational changes of the long fifties - the Rákosi era started in 1948, the decision of the Party on education in 1950, the rise and fall of Imre Nagy, the Revolution in 1956 and its suppression, the changes in the education policy in 1958 - affect the interpretations of Makarenko's pedagogical work?
3. Which elements of Makarenko's work became highlighted during the first period of Soviet influence, and which ones would be ignored later? If several educational science groups interpreted Makarenko’s work in the examined period, what are their similarities and differences? And can the differences be explained by differing educational science concepts or political considerations?
In our study, we have used the conflict theory model as a theoretical framework and the political science approach as a methodology.
The sources of my research are the Pedagogical Review, the publications of Public Education in the 1950s, the Socialist Education Library series, and the pedagogical works on Makarenko's writings published in the era.
Based on our research and according to the special literature, Makarenko and his work, which became a reference point in the socialist education of the early 1950s, were interpreted by the educational science professionals who entered the positions of the education management. This group lost its power of influence on education policy due to the change in it in the course of 1958, but retained its positions in science and higher education under the Kadarian consolidation policy. This power arrangement is what can explain the fact why the scientific Makarenko interpretations carry the characteristics of the pedagogy of the Stalinist era in the fifties and partly later on. The changes in the Makarenko interpretation occurred only as a result of the (educational) political changes in 1958 that implemented the Kadarian two-pronged politics (anti-dogmatist and anti-revisionist). (Show less)