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Wed 18 March
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    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 19 March
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Fri 20 March
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Sat 21 March
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Wednesday 18 March 2020 14.00 - 16.00
W-3 SPA07a Spatial Analysis of Population Geography and Occupational Structure I: New data and new methods
Matthias de Vrieshof 2, 004
Networks: Economic History , Spatial and Digital History Chair: Alexis Litvine
Organizer: Alexis Litvine Discussants: Carmen Sarasua, Leigh Shaw-Taylor
Laurent Heyberger : The Occupational Structure of the European Settler’s Population of Algeria: an Approach by the Conscription Records, 1870-1906
What we know about the occupational structure of the population of European settlers in 19th-century-Algeria and its evolutions comes from the rough estimates of the population censuses (Kateb, 2001). A random sample of 3 619 individual files of French conscripts living in the whole of Algeria -examination cohorts 1870-1906, taken ... (Show more)
What we know about the occupational structure of the population of European settlers in 19th-century-Algeria and its evolutions comes from the rough estimates of the population censuses (Kateb, 2001). A random sample of 3 619 individual files of French conscripts living in the whole of Algeria -examination cohorts 1870-1906, taken from an estimated total number of 124 646 files- enables us to analyze more precisely the occupational structure of this population, taken into consideration the colonial specificity of this kind of source (citizenship, migrations and mobility etc.). For instance, compared to France, the share of farmers is relatively low: this confirms the figures taken from the censuses and also the idea that the project of agrarian colonozation of Algeria by an European population was an early failure. But the matching at the individual level of places of birth and occupations also confirms that the foreign-born citizens were less likely to become farmers than the mother-country-born or Algeria-born citizens, showing that the facilitation of access to the land was a priority of colonial authorities. On the contrary, citizens born other-seas (elsewehre than France) are more numerous in certain occupations, for instance agricultural workers, food-trade, transport, or public works. This demonstrates the ethnical caracteristics of the occupational structure of the European population (Italians, Spanish, Algerian-born Jews, etc.), but also the existence of a colonization among the very European settler’s population (Valensi, 1969, Connoly, 2014). (Show less)

Michael Pammer : Inconsistencies in Austro-Hungarian Occupation Censuses in the Late 19th Century
Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary conducted censuses in 1890, 1900, and 1910, which included detailed occupation statistics on the regional level (that is, political districts in Austria, which mostly had 30,000 to 70,000 inhabitants, and counties in Hungary, which were two to four times larger). The censuses differed in some respects ... (Show more)
Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary conducted censuses in 1890, 1900, and 1910, which included detailed occupation statistics on the regional level (that is, political districts in Austria, which mostly had 30,000 to 70,000 inhabitants, and counties in Hungary, which were two to four times larger). The censuses differed in some respects between the two states but basic features were supposed to be similar enough to allow direct comparisons. In addition, the changes in classification tables between the census years within each state were minimal, for instance, adding detailed information to the vertical classification, or, changing the assignment of some branches to sectors (the branch classification itself was changed in a few cases as well, a problem that can be solved by aggregation).
Thus, the three censuses in the two states may be expected to offer a consistent picture of the occupational structure of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Actually, most people assume somewhat naively that the categorisation done by the statistical offices can reliably be taken at face value.
In fact, however, the results suggest that the attribution of individuals to predefined occupational categories followed varying principles. There are two main issues and some minor problems:
– One major issue is the classification of independently working women mostly in agriculture who collaborated with their husbands in a common business. Census officials tended to classify these women as dependent workers (or, “collaborating family members”) instead of independent farmers. The deviation of the correct picture seems to vary arbitrarily from census to census.
– The second issue is the classification of people who pursued more than one occupation. Work in two or three different branches was quite common. The Statistical Office was aware of the problem and added several categories of by-occuputions in different sectors to the main occupation statistics. However, the indications of mixed occupations are probably not complete in the first place; thus, the census data suggest a proportion of people pursuing just one occupation that is probably too large. In addition, the classification of one occupation as main occupation, and the classification of other occupations as by-occupations, seems to have been arbitray, which becomes visible, for instance, in a comparison of Austria and Hungary.
– Other problems result from the desire to apply a uniform vertical classification on all branches. Clearly, the vertical structure differs between agriculture, branches of the secondary sector, and services. In addition, the Statistical Offices applied the same classification on people on welfare and on people of independent means.
As a result, we find a number on inconsistencies visible in tabular presentation as well as maps.
The paper deals with two issues:
1. How can we reliably distinguish between inconsistencies generated by deficient classification, and real world differences in the occupational structure of regions?
2. How can we use or correct the documented data in order to achieve a reliable and consistent picture of occupations in Austria-Hungary in the pre-World War I period? (Show less)

Filipa Ribeiro da Silva, Hélder Carvalhal & Jaime Reis : Occupational Structures in Mid-eighteenth-century Portugal: a Preliminary Assessment
Portugal has been portrayed in the secondary literature as a country where the agricultural sector dominated for most of the early modern and modern period, where proto-industrial activities were very limited and regionally localized, and where industrialization took off rather late, was geographically confined and lead to relatively poor outcomes. ... (Show more)
Portugal has been portrayed in the secondary literature as a country where the agricultural sector dominated for most of the early modern and modern period, where proto-industrial activities were very limited and regionally localized, and where industrialization took off rather late, was geographically confined and lead to relatively poor outcomes. Missing is, however, a long-term analysis of the transformation of Portugal’s occupational structure in the transition for the early to the modern period. This paper is the point of departure for a long-term study on continuities and changes in the occupational structure of early modern and modern Portugal. To work towards this aim, in this paper the authors will present a first overview of the occupational structure of the country circa 1750, paying special attention to regional variations and gender differences and their respective explanatory factors. Our study is based on a dataset of more than 15.000 nominal records at household level, extracted from Portuguese fiscal books – décima do maneio. (Show less)

Petri Roikonen : Historical Occupational Structure in Finland, 1700-1910
The development of the occupational structure is one of the fundamental characteristics of economy and society as a whole. However, there are surprisingly small amount of studies considering occupational structure and industrialization in the long-run, especially on a periphery. In this study, we explore the historical occupational structure in the ... (Show more)
The development of the occupational structure is one of the fundamental characteristics of economy and society as a whole. However, there are surprisingly small amount of studies considering occupational structure and industrialization in the long-run, especially on a periphery. In this study, we explore the historical occupational structure in the parish level Finland from the year 1700 to the early 20th century.

The data consists of Church records (1675-1725), Poll tax (1749) and Religious censuses (1800, 1850-70, 1910). This data covers roughly 75-100% of the total population (including both males and females) in the parish level. The level of reporting unit in the raw data is as follows: c. 1700 (Individual), c. 1750 (Head of the Household), 1800-1910 (parish). Occupations are encoded in HISCO (Historical International Standard Classification of Occupations) and other often utilized occupation schemes (HISCAM, HISCLASS, SOCPO, PST). In addition, these records include extra information, e.g. person’s age and marital status. These spatial units will be connected to the modern and historical maps of Finland utilizing GIS mapping. This approach enables, for instance, explorations the connections between occupational structure and railroads, roads, waterways or ports. (Show less)



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