Preliminary Programme

Wed 18 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 19 March
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 20 March
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 21 March
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    14.00 - 16.00
    16.00 - 17.00

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Wednesday 18 March 2020 14.00 - 16.00
J-3 CRI16 Police and Policing in the Past and Present
Johan Huizinga, 025
Network: Criminal Justice Chairs: -
Organizers: - Discussants: -
Flávio Borda D'Água : Police the City at the Enlightenment: the Case of Lisbon after 1750
Social control of the population and the territory are two main concerns of urban space management. Often entrusted to municipal authorities as well as to criminal judges, the task of supervision has evolved over time to the point that the legislator of Ancient Regime considers it necessary to separate the ... (Show more)
Social control of the population and the territory are two main concerns of urban space management. Often entrusted to municipal authorities as well as to criminal judges, the task of supervision has evolved over time to the point that the legislator of Ancient Regime considers it necessary to separate the justice and the police. These two domains become incompatible and make social control less efficient.
The great capitals of kingdoms then undertake reforms of justice leading to the creation of institutions such as the General Lieutenance of Police of Paris, in 1667. The French royal authorities then began to spread this system first within the kingdom, trying to impose it in Lyon (1699) for example; then to other courts in Europe. Thus, administrative documents circulate praising the Parisian system and describing the contours of the new organization.
Diffusion is done mainly through printed documents, some of which are real police manuals, as well as via manuscripts. The historiography of the police, which has developed strongly since the 1980s, identifies these broadcasters as mémoires policiers.
This communication highlights on one side the circulation of such material and on the other side how a city like Lisbon is building on existing police systems to reform the relationship between justice and the police. How is the Portugal of Joseph Ist and the Marquis de Pombal inspired by these memoirs for a production of other similar texts?
This approach finally allows to think the police in the second half of the eighteenth century including having as a backdrop the recovery of Portuguese institutions after the earthquake of November 1, 1755. (Show less)

Joanne Klein : English Police in the Age of Social Media
With the advent of social media, English police authorities have to decide how to use these new platforms. This paper will explore how a sample of police authorities have responded to social media, in particular studying how specific authorities use Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to communicate with the public, ... (Show more)
With the advent of social media, English police authorities have to decide how to use these new platforms. This paper will explore how a sample of police authorities have responded to social media, in particular studying how specific authorities use Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to communicate with the public, and how the public responds to their posts. Two major categories of communications exist. First, social media is used to promote positive community relations. Such posts tend to appear on Facebook and Instagram since they rely on pictures. To create a friendly public image, authorities post pictures of police officers engaged in community outreach and also make frequent use of photos of police dogs and horses. More specifically, authorities reach out to minority groups, such as the LGBTQ community, promoting an image of police officers supporting and protecting minority rights. Second, social media is used for getting out information on crime and public order. They promote law-enforcement campaigns, such as raising awareness of knife crimes. Public appeals are made for help in solving specific crimes or finding missing persons. Finally, generally through Twitter posts, they get out information on specific events, such as severe weather warnings, road closures and accidents, and terrorist attacks. My research will sample English police authorities’ social media presence, exploring how different authorities make use of social media platforms and what areas of outreach they emphasize. Exploring how the public responds to police authority posts will provide some idea on how effectively social media works in specific areas, such as in public appeals or in minority outreach. (Show less)

Haia Shpayer-Makov : Policing the Peace Movement during the Great War
Peace advocates had been active in Britain since the beginning of the nineteenth century, but they were not perceived as a threat that warranted police attention. This changed with the First World War and in particular with the introduction of compulsory military service early in 1916, when pacifism and conscientious ... (Show more)
Peace advocates had been active in Britain since the beginning of the nineteenth century, but they were not perceived as a threat that warranted police attention. This changed with the First World War and in particular with the introduction of compulsory military service early in 1916, when pacifism and conscientious objection increasingly came to be seen as threats to state security and social norms. Although wartime Britain was governed by Liberal-led governments, under the emergency laws and regulations, the police were able to wield their authority more than before in the effort to compel individuals and groups to obey highly restrictive practices – many of which were regarded as un-English before the war, even by the police. Moreover, the discretionary powers of the police were enhanced, not least by public opinion, which correspondingly became more supportive and tolerant of police activity during the war.
This paper seeks to explore the ways in which the British police de facto used their extended powers to curb anti-war campaigns, acts which the bulk of the public regarded as un-patriotic and even treacherous. Did this arm of the state exercise the full powers of the law vested in them? More specifically, what was the nature of the police's actual interactions with pacifists and conscientious objectors and how did the latter view the police’s reaction and treatment? Finally, how did the press interpret and report on such encounters? The answers to these questions are fundamental to our understanding of the impact that this particular war had on traditional police norms and practices, as reflected in the police's handling of dissent. (Show less)

David Smale : The Use of Police Spies in the Radical War in Glasgow, 1820
The Radical War in the west of Scotland in 1820 has largely been ignored by British historians or viewed as a footnote of the Peterloo Massacre. Recent archival research has shown the ruthless methods employed by Lord Liverpool’s government, the Scottish authorities and the fledgling Glasgow Police. The economic downturn ... (Show more)
The Radical War in the west of Scotland in 1820 has largely been ignored by British historians or viewed as a footnote of the Peterloo Massacre. Recent archival research has shown the ruthless methods employed by Lord Liverpool’s government, the Scottish authorities and the fledgling Glasgow Police. The economic downturn following the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, combined with other government actions, including the Corn Laws, led to crushing poverty for the textile workers. An initially peaceful reform movement petitioned the government, however, when this failed, they turned to armed insurrection. Over a week in April 1820 the main events of the rising included a general strike involving 60,000 people, the Battle of Bonnymuir, the march from Strathaven and a riot at Greenock. This was accompanied by general disturbances in the west of Scotland and numerous attacks on the army and the local militias, sent to quell the uprising. The result of the uprising was three men executed and nineteen transported.
With clear directions from the Home Secretary Lord Sidmouth, the uprising was defeated by the traditional Georgian method of employing spies. In Glasgow there were at least four distinct groups of spies; Edinburgh policemen sent to infiltrate the radical’s committee, paid spies employed by a local MP, and the Sheriff of Lanarkshire, and finally ‘secret men’ paid by the criminal officers of the city police.
The activities of these police officers and paid informants are only revealed by combing the archives including; local police records and Home Office documents. In these records the voices of the reformers are silent but the reports of spies explain the activities of the radicals, sometimes exaggerated to prolong their pay days? These official documents can reveal the extent of spying in unexpected ways. For example, claims for expenses by the Edinburgh police for inserting men into the Glasgow radicals, show that the government had a clear understanding of much of their activities. The archives reveal the violence advocated by both central and local government to confront and defeat working people calling for reform. (Show less)

Ilkay Yilmaz : Photographs and Identification: Ottoman Police Photographs
The administrative reforms during the 19th century appear as crucial elements of founding the modern state apparatus in the late Ottoman Empire. While Ottoman Empire became part of international police cooperation with The International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense Against Anarchists (November 24 - December 21, 1898) and ... (Show more)
The administrative reforms during the 19th century appear as crucial elements of founding the modern state apparatus in the late Ottoman Empire. While Ottoman Empire became part of international police cooperation with The International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense Against Anarchists (November 24 - December 21, 1898) and Saint Petersburg Protocol (1904), Ottoman Government was also eager to use new technologies in policing. As part of this process, the use of photographs for purposes of identification created new document types for police departments and prisons in the late Ottoman Empire. This paper will discuss the knowledge exchange in Billion system with the use of photographs as policing technics by Ottoman police departments and how these photographs circulated between different police departments internationally. (Show less)



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