Preliminary Programme

Wed 18 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 19 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 20 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 21 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.00 - 17.00

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Wednesday 18 March 2020 16.30 - 18.30
J-4 POL32 Minorities and the Emerging Nordic Welfare State in the 20th century
Johan Huizinga, 025
Networks: Economic History , Ethnicity and Migration , Politics, Citizenship, and Nations , Social Inequality Chair: Pauli Kettunen
Organizer: Matias Kaihovirta Discussant: Heidi Vad Jönsson
Matias Kaihovirta : A Minority within or without the Welfare State? Early 20th Century Finland-Swedish Socialist and Bourgeois Conceptions of Welfare and Minority Rights
Matias Kaihovirta and Mats Wickström studies how different policies on welfare were articulated by Swedish-speaking socialists and bourgeois agents in early 20th century Finland. How was minority rights related to welfare policy? One of the main topic in the early 20th century debate was whether welfare should be organized universally ... (Show more)
Matias Kaihovirta and Mats Wickström studies how different policies on welfare were articulated by Swedish-speaking socialists and bourgeois agents in early 20th century Finland. How was minority rights related to welfare policy? One of the main topic in the early 20th century debate was whether welfare should be organized universally or by the minority for the minority. In our presentation we analyze this political debate from the specific Finnish political historical context, but we are also relating the Finland-Swedish case to a broader historical context on minority nationalism and welfare policies. (Show less)

Otso Kortekangas : Nationalism without a State. The Early Twentieth Century Sámi National Movement as Reflected in Sámi-language Prose and Verse
The Sámi are recognized as a national minority in Sweden, Norway and Finland, and it is the only indigenous population in the Nordic countries. Through ecclesial and educational initiatives, the Sámi were connected to the Swedish (including modern-day Finland) and the Danish-Norwegian states from the seventeenth century onwards. Today, within ... (Show more)
The Sámi are recognized as a national minority in Sweden, Norway and Finland, and it is the only indigenous population in the Nordic countries. Through ecclesial and educational initiatives, the Sámi were connected to the Swedish (including modern-day Finland) and the Danish-Norwegian states from the seventeenth century onwards. Today, within the political movement of the Sámi, claims for an equal citizenship with the rest of the Swedes/Norwegians/Finns coexist and sometimes clash with a notion of the Sámi as a border-crossing nationality of its own (the home area of the Sámi spans from Norway over Sweden and Finland to Russia). The idea of the Sámi as their own nation emerged already in the early nineteenth century, partly influenced by the nationalisms of the Nordic states. In this paper, I will investigate two Sámi novels with Sámi-nationalist undertones published in the early twentieth century.1 I will investigate in what ways these novels, published in Norway and Finland in the North Sámi language, framed a) the Sámi nation and b) the relationship between the Sámi and the majority populations of Norway and Finland. Is this relationship portrayed as unproblematic or can a tension between the national(ist) projects (Sámi on the one hand, Finnish and Norwegian on the other) be discerned? (Show less)

Hanna Lindberg : Including and Excluding Minorities in the Finnish Welfare State. The Case of the Finland-Swedish Deaf, c. 1950-2000
The Finland-Swedish deaf, that is deaf persons belonging to the Swedish-speaking population in Finland, formed throughout the 20th century a small but vital community, with a strong sense of minority identity, centered around the Swedish school for the deaf in the town of Borgå. In my ongoing research on this ... (Show more)
The Finland-Swedish deaf, that is deaf persons belonging to the Swedish-speaking population in Finland, formed throughout the 20th century a small but vital community, with a strong sense of minority identity, centered around the Swedish school for the deaf in the town of Borgå. In my ongoing research on this community during the second half of the 20th century, I analyze the Finland-Swedish deaf’s struggle for educational, social and linguistic rights, as well as the construction of a minority identity. In my research I argue that the construction of the Finland-Swedish deaf as a minority occurred in connection with two major developments, that is the establishment of the Finnish welfare state after the second world war, and the deaf awareness movement that reached the Nordic countries in the late 1970s.

In this paper I will focus on the way that the emerging welfare state both facilitated disability rights, but also developed exclusionary practices for disabled minorities. The Finnish welfare state grew considerably in the 60s, 70s, and 80s, also encompassing disabled people’s rights to education and social services. For being a small minority, the Finland-Swedish deaf had strong formal right, such as the right to education, health care and social services in Swedish. However, access to these rights were weak, creating a feeling of only partial inclusion in the Finnish welfare state. Therefore, from the 1950s onwards the Finland-Swedish deaf started to move to Sweden, in search for a welfare state more attuned to the rights of the deaf. Therefore, I argue that the welfare state created a paradoxical situation for a minority such as the Finland-Swedish deaf, both creating a foundation for minority identity and feelings of exclusion. (Show less)

Jardar Sørvoll : The Norwegian Welfare State in a Comparative Perspective 1945-2020
In the last twenty to thirty years, the development of the Norwegian welfare state has differed in many respects from its European counterparts. The external and internal pressures for reform and retrenchment have been weak compared to most or all other nations, including the other Nordic welfare states. Sweden and ... (Show more)
In the last twenty to thirty years, the development of the Norwegian welfare state has differed in many respects from its European counterparts. The external and internal pressures for reform and retrenchment have been weak compared to most or all other nations, including the other Nordic welfare states. Sweden and Finland experienced a much greater economic downturn in the late
1980s and early 1990s. In addition, there was no great recession in Norway after the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2007-2008: Europe’s second largest exporter of oil and gas recovered quickly and unemployment figures stayed well below the OECD-average throughout the years of Jens Stoltenberg’s red-green coalition government (2005-2013). These fortuitous economic
circumstances contributed to the strong general support for state sponsored welfare services amongst politicians, the public, and the key organizations of the labour market. Meanwhile, neoliberal ideas attract limited support. In my view, little suggests that the present right-wing coalition government (2013-), will push for a fundamental retrenchment of the welfare state. However, this does not mean that there are not challenges and dilemmas in the fields of social and economic policy. In this paper, I analyze the long-term development and key challenges of the Norwegian welfare state, including the ageing society and social expenditure and the housing market and social inequality. The paper draws on various forms of quantitative and qualitative data, including policy documents and social surveys. (Show less)



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