Preliminary Programme

Wed 18 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 19 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 20 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 21 March
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.00 - 17.00

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Wednesday 18 March 2020 16.30 - 18.30
G-4 CUL04 Modern Tourism History: Institutions, Experts, and Travel Cultures since World War II
P.N. van Eyckhof 3, 005
Network: Culture Chair: Liesbeth van de Grift
Organizer: Sune Bechmann Pedersen Discussant: Jan Hein Furnée
Sune Bechmann Pedersen, Betto van Waarden : Global Tourism History: International Cooperation, Development, and Decolonization
In the wake of the Second World War, a number of European tourist organizations founded the International Union of Official Travel Organisations (IUOTO), the first global organization to promote tourism and the freedom to travel. Based on IUOTO’s rarely studied archive, this paper presents pioneering research on the IUOTO and ... (Show more)
In the wake of the Second World War, a number of European tourist organizations founded the International Union of Official Travel Organisations (IUOTO), the first global organization to promote tourism and the freedom to travel. Based on IUOTO’s rarely studied archive, this paper presents pioneering research on the IUOTO and its transformation from a small group of European tourist experts to a global tourism organization under the auspices of the United Nations. Membership of the IUOTO expanded quickly in the 1950s and 1960s as newly independent states joined and soon, the IUOTO was torn between two factions. East European and Global South members wanted the organization to provide technical assistance and expertise to countries where tourism was still developing. In contrast, most West European members preferred a low-budget organization that merely coordinated advocacy efforts and gathered information. Numerically superior, the former group eventually won. In 1975, the organization became the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), a UN agency with a dramatically increased budget for tourism development. Dismayed with this politicization of tourism, many West European members left the organization. To this day, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, the UK, and the US remain outside its framework, which provides contemporary relevance to the organization’s controversial history. The history of the IUOTO and its transformation to the UNWTO raises important questions about non-European agency in the process of globalizing tourism. Based on archival research at the virtually unstudied UNWTO archives in Madrid, this paper argues that non-European members backed by East European states played a crucial role in the transfer of technical expertise and practical knowledge to the Global South. Thereby, the paper contributes empirically and theoretically to the global history of tourism. By studying key actors’ competing agendas and conceptualizations of tourism in relation to governments and industry representatives, the paper also contributes to a global history of modern tourism that moves beyond traditional dichotomies and diffusion models. (Show less)

Sara Fieldston : “The World’s Champion Souvenir Collectors”: American Tourists, Consumption, and Power after World War II
Sara Fieldston is Assistant Professor of History at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. She is the author of Raising the World: Child Welfare in the American Century (Harvard, 2015), which was a finalist for the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians Book Prize. She is also co-editor, with ... (Show more)
Sara Fieldston is Assistant Professor of History at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. She is the author of Raising the World: Child Welfare in the American Century (Harvard, 2015), which was a finalist for the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians Book Prize. She is also co-editor, with Susan Eckelmann Berghel and Paul M. Renfro, of Growing Up America: Youth and Politics since 1945 (forthcoming with the University of Georgia Press). Her current book project, Shopping for Empire: American Tourists, Consumption, and Power after World War II, is a history of American postwar tourism abroad with a focus on shopping and consumption. She holds a Ph.D. from Yale University. (Show less)

Aimée Plukker : Holidays in Europe: Post-war American Tourism and the Making of ‘the West’ (1945-1960)
In the years after the Second World War, not only major economic and political shifts took place, but also shifts concerning more general ideas about what Europe and America were supposed to be. In this period, the older tradition of visiting Europe or the ‘Old World’ as an act for ... (Show more)
In the years after the Second World War, not only major economic and political shifts took place, but also shifts concerning more general ideas about what Europe and America were supposed to be. In this period, the older tradition of visiting Europe or the ‘Old World’ as an act for Americans to re-discover, re-connect with and re-possess one’s heritage became a mode of cultural justification for the political alliance between Europe and the United States. As legitimate heirs and caretakers of a particular form of ‘Western civilisation’, Americans consciously combined elements of European culture and history with American models of consumerism and production into what they started to perceive and practice as shared common identity: that of ‘the West’.
In this process of defining ‘the West’, American policy-makers, eager to strengthen an alliance between Europe and the United States in the context of the Cold War, clearly recognised the potential of tourism as an instrument to promote the construction of ‘Western civilisation’. Tourism development was also a key component of the Marshall Plan (officially European Recovery Program, 1948-1952), to aid in the recovery of war-torn Europe. The Marshall Plan explicitly stimulated American tourists to bring dollars to Europe and encouraged European partners to adapt their tourist infrastructure to the needs of American tourists. This way, the Marshall Plan employed tourism as a way to propagate American ideals of modernisation, the consumer citizen, technological progress and internationalism. Besides its economic benefits, tourism thus functioned as an important diplomatic tool in American policy.
With a focus on American guidebooks, travel magazines and tourism promotion, this paper will look at how American tourists were lured to Europe and how this contributed to the idea of ‘The West’ on a political and cultural level, through references to cultural heritage, tourism facilities and (political) ideals for the future. (Show less)

Igor Tchoukarine : International Institutions and Experts in the Cold War Tourism Industry
Historians have written on the multiple linkages between East and West during the Cold War, and tourism offers indeed a wonderful lens through which to examine the ways in which both camps interacted. Despite this interest, little attention has been directed towards the individuals who worked in international tourism-related organizations. ... (Show more)
Historians have written on the multiple linkages between East and West during the Cold War, and tourism offers indeed a wonderful lens through which to examine the ways in which both camps interacted. Despite this interest, little attention has been directed towards the individuals who worked in international tourism-related organizations. To fill this gap, this paper explores the notions of these “experts,” and argues that these experts—as well as the institutions and professional networks in which they operated—did not only have normative and converging impacts on tourism development and the tourism industry, but also became central actors in contemporary debates about the postwar reconstruction and integration of Europe, European identity, mass consumption, and technical assistance to developing countries. These experts and their works can also help us understand the interconnectedness between East and West, and its limits. (Show less)



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