Preliminary Programme

Wed 12 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 13 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 14 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 15 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00

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Wednesday 12 April 2023 11.00 - 13.00
N-2 ETH20 Intersectionality
C32
Networks: Ethnicity and Migration , Sexuality Chair: Marjolein Schepers
Organizers: - Discussants: -
Moderators: -
Betty De Hart, Julia Woesthoff : Gender and Citizenship Law in the Netherlands and (West) Germany after 1945: a Comparative Perspective on Consequences and Responses
Citizenship law has been a topic of considerable academic interest. The literature largely emphasizes the public sphere of rights and obligations of a citizen who voluntarily acquired citizenship, and citizenship is connected predominantly to issues of migration and national belonging. Gender is generally mentioned only in passing. On the other ... (Show more)
Citizenship law has been a topic of considerable academic interest. The literature largely emphasizes the public sphere of rights and obligations of a citizen who voluntarily acquired citizenship, and citizenship is connected predominantly to issues of migration and national belonging. Gender is generally mentioned only in passing. On the other hand, studies on the role of gender in citizenship law have demonstrated that citizenship for women was defined through marriage and reproduction. Citizenship included the right to have a family, a spouse, a home, and children, which, for a long time, was a male privilege. Women gave birth to members of the nation-state, but they also reproduced its ideology and the symbolic and legal borders of the collective. Controlling this reproductive function meant controlling women’s sexuality and this meant: loss of citizenship when they married a foreigner. However, the literature that addresses gender in citizenship focuses largely on political debates and tells us little about the practice: how the gendered implications of citizenship were enforced and what its family-level effects were.
This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. Based on empirical research in government and national archives, media sources and documents from grassroots organizations, this paper focuses on how citizenship law was put into practice and the consequences of those practices, for the women and their families. It provides insights into how the women and their families were affected by the law and how they negotiated the legal landscape and the realities that it wrought. As revocation of citizenship has become a growing state practice, such historical insights are particularly relevant.
This paper is based on a collaborate and comparative project exploring the remarkable similarities in questions of gender and citizenship over the course of the twentieth century in the Netherlands and (West) Germany. Since 1953 in West Germany and 1964 in the Netherlands, women who marry a foreigner no longer automatically lose their citizenship but remain citizens of their respective native countries. However, gender equality in citizenship law was far from complete in either country and often resulted in legal uncertainty that could precipitate the couple’s move abroad. Foreign husbands had no right to establish family life in their wives’ home country and the children of these mixed couples were only eligible for their father’s citizenship as women did not gain the right to pass on their citizenship to their offspring until 1975 in Germany and 1985 in the Netherlands. Hence, the move to the husband’s country of nationality may not always have been voluntary, and once there, it may have been difficult to return. Marriages to foreign husbands continued to be seen as inherently suspicious if not outright untrustworthy and threatening the domestic and ethnic order as well as the natural gender order in which women followed their husbands and not the other way around. (Show less)

Karl Monsma, Andréa Vettorassi : Intersectionality as Intertwined Trajectories: Changing Consequences of International and Internal Migrations for the Intersections of Racial, Gender and Migratory Identities in Western São Paulo during Two Periods, 1880-1914 and 1970-2000
Intersectional categories are not fixed and permanent, because their meanings are socially constructed and reconstructed over time. The meaning of such categories and the experience of those in them are influenced by people’s locations and previous experience in trajectories such as the life course, family formation and dissolution, educational and ... (Show more)
Intersectional categories are not fixed and permanent, because their meanings are socially constructed and reconstructed over time. The meaning of such categories and the experience of those in them are influenced by people’s locations and previous experience in trajectories such as the life course, family formation and dissolution, educational and occupational careers, and migration histories, among others. The nature of these trajectories also changes over time. Here we examine the changing experience and relations among groups defined by combinations of racial, gender and migratory identities in western São Paulo state during two key moments of Brazilian history: the period of abolition of slavery and mass European immigration at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th; and period of the great migration from Northeastern Brazil to the Southeast, especially São Paulo, from the 1930s onward. The paper is based on archival research on the first period, covering roughly the years from 1880 to 1914, and interviews with men and women who had migrated during the last three decades of the 20th century and the first of the 21st from a municipality in northeastern Brazil to the interior of São Paulo state. After abolition greater gender differentiation is visible among those freed from slavery, as men and women often claimed dignity by trying to conform to the prevailing gender norms of the time. Although European, mostly Italian, immigrants at the beginning of mass immigration soon after abolition often maintained friendly relations with black people, they soon developed group hostility toward Afro-Brazilians, as Europeans struggled for better working conditions and greater respect by refusing to be treated like black people. Both European men and women participated in violence against Afro-Brazilians, directed mostly against black men, stigmatized as criminal, violent and sometimes sexual predators. Afro-Brazilian women, on the other hand, were often stigmatized as bad mothers and alcoholics. By the beginning of the great Northeastern migration, the children and grandchildren of European immigrants constituted the dominant ethnic group in the region, and they racialized Northeasterners and stigmatized them as backward and violent. Migrants cope with stigmatization by maintaining strong ties to their region of origin and forming separate residential communities. Since the 1970’s, the nature of migrant employment has changed twice, with consequences for migratory trajectories and intersectional identities. In the 1970’s, both men and women went to São Paulo to work in the cane harvest. Starting in the 1990’s, payment based on production led to an all-male harvest workforce and circular male migration, with women and children often staying in the Northeast and husbands and fathers absent for about nine months each year. This led to increased female autonomy, even the formation of female agricultural cooperatives, in the Northeast. Recently, with mechanized harvesting, many male migrants now work year-round at other jobs, especially in construction, and women have again been migrating to São Paulo, finding mainly urban employment, especially in domestic service. (Show less)

Linda Reeder : Modern Italy and the Making of the Migrant: State Surveillance, Gender, and Mobility in the 19th century
In recent years migration scholars have focused on the ways in which increased security practices shape migration regimes, yet little attention has been paid to the ways in which surveillance practices informed migration in the past. This paper explores the impact of the emergence of 19th century state surveillance strategies ... (Show more)
In recent years migration scholars have focused on the ways in which increased security practices shape migration regimes, yet little attention has been paid to the ways in which surveillance practices informed migration in the past. This paper explores the impact of the emergence of 19th century state surveillance strategies on Italian migration in the 19th c. I argue that the creation of the Italian state in 1861 accompanied new kinds of surveillance practices, including census reports, permission documents (nulla osta), residency permits, that redefined mobile bodies. These surveillance practices heightened the visibility of certain kinds of migrants, marking them as “good” or “dangerous”, while rendering other mobile bodies invisible. The (in)visibility of migrants in official records is anchored in gendered notions of citizenship and nation-formation. Drawing on consulate reports, deportation records, birth and marriage records, this paper uses the history of Italian nation-formation in the 19th century to examine how state surveillance strategies played a constitutive role in the politics of migration, and the formation of gendered migrant bodies. (Show less)

Ayse Humeyra Tuysuz : Istanbul: At the Intersection of Immigration and Trafficking (1880-1914)
Istanbul, as a port city, has become a hub for transmigrants throughout the history. It hosted tens of thousands of refugees fleeing from persecution in Russian and Eastern European territories between 1880 and 1914. Among these refugees Jewish groups take an important place, as they were at the center of ... (Show more)
Istanbul, as a port city, has become a hub for transmigrants throughout the history. It hosted tens of thousands of refugees fleeing from persecution in Russian and Eastern European territories between 1880 and 1914. Among these refugees Jewish groups take an important place, as they were at the center of debates on human trafficking. Jewish women escaping from anti-Jewish environment and harsh economic conditions in Eastern Europe stopped by Istanbul with the aim of travelling overseas for a better life. Upon their arrival, most of these women were dragged to prostitution in brothels by their coreligionists, who work as trafficking agents. Prevalence of trafficking and prostitution raised concerns of the Ottoman government, Ottoman and international Jewish communities. Degeneration of the social order and the spread of diseases were the main concerns of these groups. Ottoman state officials, local Jewish community of Istanbul and some international Jewish and non-Jewish organizations made efforts to prevent trafficking of women and prostitution.

This paper outlines the efforts of the Ottoman government, Jewish communities in Istanbul and international organizations against trafficking. How they approach the issue of trafficking and which measures they prefer to take will be analyzed for each group. The collaboration between these groups will also be addressed.

A special importance will be given to the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women (JAPGW), which was one of the pillars of England‘s early anti-trafficking movement. Although JAPGW was based in London, they had offices and representatives in various cities, including Istanbul, where intense trafficking took place, and published reports and proposed solutions for trafficking in these places. The JAPGW’s perception of trafficking in Istanbul and their attitude towards prostitution will be examined based on the reports published by the Association. (Show less)

Julia Woesthoff, Betty de Hart : Gender and Citizenship Law in the Netherlands and (West) Germany after 1945: a Comparative Perspective on Consequences and Responses
Citizenship law has been a topic of considerable academic interest. The literature largely emphasizes the public sphere of rights and obligations of a citizen who voluntarily acquired citizenship, and citizenship is connected predominantly to issues of migration and national belonging. Gender is generally mentioned only in passing. On the other ... (Show more)
Citizenship law has been a topic of considerable academic interest. The literature largely emphasizes the public sphere of rights and obligations of a citizen who voluntarily acquired citizenship, and citizenship is connected predominantly to issues of migration and national belonging. Gender is generally mentioned only in passing. On the other hand, studies on the role of gender in citizenship law have demonstrated that citizenship for women was defined through marriage and reproduction. Citizenship included the right to have a family, a spouse, a home, and children, which, for a long time, was a male privilege. Women gave birth to members of the nation-state, but they also reproduced its ideology and the symbolic and legal borders of the collective. Controlling this reproductive function meant controlling women’s sexuality and this meant: loss of citizenship when they married a foreigner. However, the literature that addresses gender in citizenship focuses largely on political debates and tells us little about the practice: how the gendered implications of citizenship were enforced and what its family-level effects were.
This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. Based on empirical research in government and national archives, media sources and documents from grassroots organizations, this paper focuses on how citizenship law was put into practice and the consequences of those practices, for the women and their families. It provides insights into how the women and their families were affected by the law and how they negotiated the legal landscape and the realities that it wrought. As revocation of citizenship has become a growing state practice, such historical insights are particularly relevant.
This paper is based on a collaborate and comparative project exploring the remarkable similarities in questions of gender and citizenship over the course of the twentieth century in the Netherlands and (West) Germany. Since 1953 in West Germany and 1964 in the Netherlands, women who marry a foreigner no longer automatically lose their citizenship but remain citizens of their respective native countries. However, gender equality in citizenship law was far from complete in either country and often resulted in legal uncertainty that could precipitate the couple’s move abroad. Foreign husbands had no right to establish family life in their wives’ home country and the children of these mixed couples were only eligible for their father’s citizenship as women did not gain the right to pass on their citizenship to their offspring until 1975 in Germany and 1985 in the Netherlands. Hence, the move to the husband’s country of nationality may not always have been voluntary, and once there, it may have been difficult to return. Marriages to foreign husbands continued to be seen as inherently suspicious if not outright untrustworthy and threatening the domestic and ethnic order as well as the natural gender order in which women followed their husbands and not the other way around. (Show less)



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