Preliminary Programme

Wed 12 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 13 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 14 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 15 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00

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Wednesday 12 April 2023 14.00 - 16.00
K-3 ELI01 Elites, Civil Service and Politics: the Role of State Representatives in the Territory in Central and Eastern Europe (1860s–1940s)
B44
Network: Elites and Forerunners Chair: Martin Klecacky
Organizers: Martin Klecacky, Judit Pál Discussant: Vlad Popovici
Moderators: -
Stjepan Matkovic : Politics and Bureaucracy in Kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia at the Turn of the 20th Century
Institutional reforms in the 1860s gave rise to the growth of new social groups. Among them was the domestic bureaucracy active in the political administration (provincial government, counties, cities, municipalities) as a separate group, which until then had limited influence. The transformation process brought about the nationalization of the bureaucracy ... (Show more)
Institutional reforms in the 1860s gave rise to the growth of new social groups. Among them was the domestic bureaucracy active in the political administration (provincial government, counties, cities, municipalities) as a separate group, which until then had limited influence. The transformation process brought about the nationalization of the bureaucracy and a new type of professional civil service. The legal basis for this process lay in the autonomous position of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia within the Hungarian halves of the Monarchy after the implementation of the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement (1868). Through the establishment of the University of Zagreb and other schools, training centres for the administrative apparatus were set up. By the end of the 19th century, a significant number of officials had emerged. Members of the land government's departments and county administration made up the backbone of the ruling political structures regardless of party affiliation. In historiography so far, civil servants have been described as a loyal factor to pro-Hungarian unionists. However, the officials took an oath of allegiance to the ruler and were formally above the pressure of party discipline. Because of that, they were in the ranks of various governing parties or coalitions. On the other hand, the reward system conditioned the loyalty mentality and reliability.
The presentation aims to determine the influence of bureaucracy on the political scene in the context of parliamentary elections. The research is founded on quantitative data analysis of electoral registration lists and election results. In the beginning, the author defines the term of bureaucracy applying official statistical data. Furthermore, the author will answer how the bureaucracy participated in the election campaigns and whether we can find their representatives as a part of opposition activities? Using archival documents of the personal dossiers, the author will pay attention to the fluctuation of the civil servants. Finally, the presentation will verify if the number of bureaucrats has multiplied from the sixties until the beginning of the First World War. (Show less)

Ploscaru Nelu Cristian : The Institution of the Prefecture in Romania (1864-1892): Between Political Networks and Social Relations of Patronage
The research of the establishment of the prefecture in Romania (United Principalities), as a fundamental institution of the modern state administration involves several levels of analysis, combining institutional history with political and social history. We will focus on a few aspects, in connection with some specific historical elements in the ... (Show more)
The research of the establishment of the prefecture in Romania (United Principalities), as a fundamental institution of the modern state administration involves several levels of analysis, combining institutional history with political and social history. We will focus on a few aspects, in connection with some specific historical elements in the Romanian case, resulting from the application of an institutional model of Western origin in Romania, after the unification of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, until the end of the 19th century, when we can observe a maturation of the modern administration, both in legislative and functional terms.
In addition to the legal framework of this period (the communal law of 1/13 April 1864, amended in March 1872 and March 1883, the law on county councils of 2/14 April 1864 and the law on the organisation of administrative authorities of 1/13 November 1892), the social profile of the Romanian elite, the patronage relations proper to the structures within this elite, which continued to influence the social stability and ascension, but also the process of selection of officials at the local level determined by the emergence and gradual consolidation of power networks within political parties influenced the activity, administrative attributions and role of the prefects in the electoral process. Corroborating all these elements, we will try to formulate some conclusions. (Show less)

Judit Pál : Changes in the Recruitment of Transylvanian Local Government Representatives (Lord Lieutenants) during and after the First World War
Within the administrative system in Hungary the key unit was the county (vármegye), which preserved a part of its autonomy and self-administration rights, but this autonomy was increasingly diminished even before First World War. The centralization of administration, and the gradual extension of state control – mainly through the Lord ... (Show more)
Within the administrative system in Hungary the key unit was the county (vármegye), which preserved a part of its autonomy and self-administration rights, but this autonomy was increasingly diminished even before First World War. The centralization of administration, and the gradual extension of state control – mainly through the Lord Lieutenants (f?ispán), who represented the government in the counties – was a process that had already started in pre-war Hungary, and it was further intensified during First World War by the appointment of government commissioners. The end of the war brought major changes in the political regime, which impacted also on the composition of the civil servants’ corps. The process of administrative transition began in the wake of the Aster Revolution in November and December 1918, and accelerated even more after the takeover of the political and military control of the region by the Kingdom of Romania. In December, in Transylvanian counties the Romanian Ruling Council took full control of the administration and initiated the first staff changes, starting with the Lord Lieutenants.
The presentation explores the changes in the Transylvanian Lord Lieutenants’ corps before, during and after the First World War, using a prosopographical approach. The comparative analysis of the Lord Lieutenants’ corps is aimed at examining the impact of various political and regime changes on the recruitment of these high officials, as well as investigating changes in the justification for appointments. (Show less)

Martin Pekár : The Nature and Role of State Representatives in the Para-fascist Regime of the Slovak State (1939-1945) at the Regional and Local Level
In 1939, the Slovak State was proclaimed, ruled by a para-fascist authoritarian state regime represented by the Hlinka Slovak People's Party. As part of the deepening of undemocratic elements, the self-government at the level of municipalities and towns was gradually liquidated, as well as the reform of the public administration, ... (Show more)
In 1939, the Slovak State was proclaimed, ruled by a para-fascist authoritarian state regime represented by the Hlinka Slovak People's Party. As part of the deepening of undemocratic elements, the self-government at the level of municipalities and towns was gradually liquidated, as well as the reform of the public administration, in the framework of which the so-called counties headed by a county mayor were established from 1 January 1940. In my presentation, I want to focus on the model example of Andrej Germuška, who at that time was involved in the liquidation of local government in the city of Prešov, and for a short time served as county mayor in Banská Bystrica and as general secretary of the People's Party at state-wide level. He belonged to the second to third level of the party elite, and was an example of the connection between the state or party apparatus and regional and local administration. His active actions, including his participation in anti-Jewish politics, reflected his social background, the analysis and contextualization of which will be the main part of the presentation. (Show less)

Andrei Sora : A Path to an Ascending Career: the “Delegated Prefects” in Transylvania, 1918–1928
In Romania, in the first decade after World War I, the prefect, in his capacity as chief of the county administration, was the most important representative of the State at the local level. As a political official, with a vital role in ensuring electoral success for the governing parties, he ... (Show more)
In Romania, in the first decade after World War I, the prefect, in his capacity as chief of the county administration, was the most important representative of the State at the local level. As a political official, with a vital role in ensuring electoral success for the governing parties, he was instated by Royal Decree. Exception made those designated by the Ministry of Interior as “delegated prefects”, usually for a limited amount of time, but with the same responsibilities as the regular prefects. The duration of this “delegation” could last from a day to more than a year, covering the transition between the demission/removal of a regular prefect and the nomination of a new one, especially in the early days of a new government, or when the party leadership did not yet chose a favorite for the respective office. After 1918, in Romania, the number of “delegated prefects” saw an ascending trend, this solution being often preferred for the counties considered challenging to manage, including those with a high percentage of ethnic minorities located at the border, or those in which the local branches of the governing party were weak. Maintaining a “delegated prefect” in a county for an extended amount of time and in critical moments (e.g., elections) became a way to consolidate not only the central authority of the State, but also the power of the governing party. The aim of our paper is threefold. Firstly, to provide an overview of the situation, focusing on the legal framework that supported the system of “delegated prefects”, highlighting the main reasons for their instatement into office and their geographical and chronological distribution compared to the body of regular prefects. Secondly, to undertake an analysis of this category in terms of educational, social, and professional background, and to compare the results with the data and state of the art on regular prefects. Thirdly, to follow up their career paths, in order to establish if and to what degree the office of “delegated prefect” functioned as a springboard for higher administrative or political offices. (Show less)



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