Preliminary Programme

Wed 12 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 13 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 14 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 15 April
    08.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00

All days
Go back

Wednesday 12 April 2023 14.00 - 16.00
V-3 SOC04 Disability and Tourism from the 19th to the 21st Century
Västra Hamngatan 25 AK2 134
Network: Social Inequality Chair: Neelam Srivastava
Organizers: Martino Lorenzo Fagnani, Luciano Maffi Discussant: Neelam Srivastava
Moderators: -
Trinidad Domínguez Vila : The Influence of Disability Models on the Development of Tourism for People with Disabilities from 1900 to the Present
On September 27, 1980, in Manila (Philippines), the terms tourism and accessibility were related for the first time through the Manila Declaration of the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). The declaration recognised tourism as a fundamental right and key vehicle for human development. The UNWTO recommended there that WTO member states ... (Show more)
On September 27, 1980, in Manila (Philippines), the terms tourism and accessibility were related for the first time through the Manila Declaration of the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). The declaration recognised tourism as a fundamental right and key vehicle for human development. The UNWTO recommended there that WTO member states regulate tourism services, emphasise the importance of tourism accessibility and recognise tourism as a fundamental right and key element of human development. Until 1980, tourism for people with disabilities had faced numerous barriers, discrimination and conflicts, aggravated by existing social visions based on the models used to define and contextualise the term “disability”.
Disability models have been evolving. This model was medically based, in which disability was understood as the person’s individual condition; then came the social model, where disability was understood as a diversity of the human condition. Later came the political model, where disability was understood as impacting on the individual’s ability to work, to make an economic contribution; later again came the cultural model, that proposes that individuals with disabilities belong to a group with, among other aspects, shared experiences, norms and objectives. Finally, in the last decades of the twentieth century arose a multicultural model which understands disability from a global perspective. However, over the last 20 years of the twentieth century two models dominated the disability discourse, the medical and social models. The medical model takes a scientific approach to accessibility, while the social model is more directly related to people with disabilities themselves; this is represented by the different definitions of disability used by professionals and academics -medical perspective- and by disability-focused people/organisations -social perspective. From 2000, theories such as intersectionality, where people with disabilities are analysed as a heterogeneous group, have changed perspectives of incapacity.
This work aims to analyse the evolution of tourism for people with disabilities, taking into account the disability models proposed in each era over the last century. This will increase the understanding of the barriers, conflicts and discrimination from the societal perspective, and their links with disability in the different eras. (Show less)

Martino Lorenzo Fagnani : Mediterranean Environment, Disabilities, and Tourism: Scientific Debates in the Early 19th Century
The 19th century was important for the relationship between humans and nature, which underwent great changes in many contexts, such as science, technology, and economy, collecting and reworking the legacy of the previous centuries, especially the Enlightenment. In the 19th century, experts matured a greater awareness of the beneficial effects ... (Show more)
The 19th century was important for the relationship between humans and nature, which underwent great changes in many contexts, such as science, technology, and economy, collecting and reworking the legacy of the previous centuries, especially the Enlightenment. In the 19th century, experts matured a greater awareness of the beneficial effects of nature on human beings: from thermal waters to sea waters, from mountain air to full-immersion experiences in ecosystems and agroecosystems.
The beneficial effects of nature were also applied to people with temporary or permanent disabilities. The objectives varied according to the person or group who experienced the contact with nature: contributing to a therapy, alleviating a physical condition, helping psychological well-being, etc.
The paper deals with the contribution of science to ante-litteram nature tourism for people with disabilities. It analyzes letters and works of some 19th-century experts interested in the beneficial potential of Mediterranean Europe, its climate, and its environment. (Show less)

Giovanni Gregorini, Maria Paola Pasini : The Rock Carvings in Valle Camonica: the First Italian Unesco Site has become more Accessible
The paper focuses on the actions carried out in Valle Camonica and in particular on the Unesco site "Rock art of the Camonica Valley" to allow greater usability for people with limited mobility. The operation that took place in recent years has seen the convergence of several entities and ... (Show more)
The paper focuses on the actions carried out in Valle Camonica and in particular on the Unesco site "Rock art of the Camonica Valley" to allow greater usability for people with limited mobility. The operation that took place in recent years has seen the convergence of several entities and associations with extensive administrative involvement. Protected and facilitated routes have therefore been created to facilitate the visit of these sites located mostly in inaccessible spaces, information material and guides for more accessible tourism in a symbolic location, the first UNESCO site recognized in Italy. (Show less)

Stefano Magagnoli, Luciano Maffi : Disability and Religious Tourism in Twentieth Century Italy: the Case of Oftal
Following the spread of the message of Sanctuary of Lourdes, in early-twentieth-century Italy many membership organizations were founded with the aim of offering pilgrimages for people with disabilities. In particular, the religious sensibility is linked to the new tourist activities and the development of modern infrastructures: the travellers with disabiltiies ... (Show more)
Following the spread of the message of Sanctuary of Lourdes, in early-twentieth-century Italy many membership organizations were founded with the aim of offering pilgrimages for people with disabilities. In particular, the religious sensibility is linked to the new tourist activities and the development of modern infrastructures: the travellers with disabiltiies are taken care of in a spiritual and material dimension. One of these organizations – at the core of this case study – is Oftal (Federated Charity for the Transport of the Sick to Lourdes). (Show less)

Lotta Vikström, Johan Junkka & Erling Häggström Lundevaller : Occupational Opportunities among Disabled and Non-disabled Groups in Swedish Populations from the 1800s until 1959
BACKGROUND: Studies find that disabled adults make up one of the most underemployed group worldwide today. Even high-income countries show about twice as high unemployment rates in disabled groups than non-disabled. Not having a job is detrimental for the financial and social wellbeing because being part of the workforce not ... (Show more)
BACKGROUND: Studies find that disabled adults make up one of the most underemployed group worldwide today. Even high-income countries show about twice as high unemployment rates in disabled groups than non-disabled. Not having a job is detrimental for the financial and social wellbeing because being part of the workforce not only provides an income; it also presents opportunities for activity, to have social status and to build relationships that contribute both social and human capital. This is beneficial for people’s health and can decrease inequalities in society.
AIM: While contemporary research shows that disability is associated with poor employment, there is dearth knowledge about past patterns and changes over time. This study aims to investigate the association between disability and occupational opportunities from the early 1800s up until 1959 in Swedish populations.
DATA AND METODS: Using longitudinal micro data from Swedish parish registers (digitized by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University), we follow individuals across life to estimate how disability in ages 15–35 affects their job chances. Cox proportional regression models are used to estimate these chances (HR=hazard ratios) over time by gender and disability status, even disability types (sensory, physical, mental). This is possible since the registers report not only socio-demographic and occupational data on all parishioners, but also on their impairments.
RESULTS: Some first findings for the 1800s are obtained. The adjusted HRs show significantly lower occupational chances for all disability types and both genders relative to non-disabled groups (HR disabled men: 0.40, CIs 0.32-0.50; HR disabled women: 0.53, CIs 0.35-0.79). Mental disabilities implied the lowest chances (HR disabled men: 0.23; HR disabled women: 0.47), sensory disabilities (HR disabled men 0.46; HR disabled women: 0.51) and physical disabilities (HR disabled men: 0.57; HR disabled women: 0.65). These estimates suggest that disabled groups faced limited access to the labor market in the 1800s, similar to today. Comparative results from the 1900–1959 period are under way and will extend the scope of the study.
DISCUSSION: Our study is exceptional in showing long-term evidence on how disability has affected the occupational chances along with societal change and restructuring of the labor market. Disability historians argue that industrial production jeopardized the job opportunities for disabled people as they were less able to cope with manufactory work. Back in the 1800s, Sweden was one of the poorest countries in Europe predominated by agricultural production and rough manual work. From the late 1800s onwards, urban-industrial processes, rapid economic growth and improvements in public health care and service systems contributed to make Sweden internationally known as a most modern welfare states in the 1900s. In the early welfare era, however, citizens with disabilities were increasingly confined to institutions and distanced from society. Identifying how societal developments have shaped the job opportunities of disabled people relative to other groups in history, might help understand the firm link between disability and poor employment today. (Show less)



Theme by Danetsoft and Danang Probo Sayekti inspired by Maksimer