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Wednesday 12 April 2023 14.00 - 16.00
A-3 WOM26 Women - Gender in Academia
Victoriagatan 13, A243
Networks: Education and Childhood , Women and Gender Chairs: -
Organizers: - Discussants: -
Moderators: -
Dijana Dijanic Plesko : Education is for Everyone
"And I saw the other people, having schools, and better life, and all, and it encouraged me to achieve the same, to have that kind of life ……. if you do not have a school, you cannot have ideals"
In this paper author juxtapose socialist legislation, ideology, official policy, and its ... (Show more)
"And I saw the other people, having schools, and better life, and all, and it encouraged me to achieve the same, to have that kind of life ……. if you do not have a school, you cannot have ideals"
In this paper author juxtapose socialist legislation, ideology, official policy, and its promotion of education in the post WWII period in Croatia with the experiences of women (oral history testimonies), to get a wider picture of the impact of education and education policy on the lives of women.
Among thirty interviewed women, fourteen were clerks (one of them become a member of the Parliament of the People's Republic of Croatia), six worked in education (as teachers and professors), two were scientists, one was artist, three worked in healthcare (as nurses and laboratory assistant), two were housewives and two were industrial workers (one after graduating high school become director of the company).
The answers show that the policy of education had not only the purpose of raising the educational level of the population of socialist Croatia / Yugoslavia, but also:
1. On the level of ideology - changing the consciousness, feelings, and behavior of people towards “new” socialist state
2. On the level of politics – working class emancipation and awareness of its leading role in governing (political) institutions
3. On the level of women’s emancipation – making women more visible in the working place, but that was not the case in private life and on the level of public policies who could influenced on emancipation of women in private and public/ professional life (modification of gender roles). (Show less)

Anna Horstmann : „I hate anything Chemical-female at all“. The Social Closure of Occupational Fields qua Gender using the Example of the German Chemical Industry in the 20th Century
"In my personal opinion, I hate anything chemical-female at all and I wish that the ladies study anything else but chemistry, because they are not suited for it”, was the rant of chemist Carl Duisberg in 1898 in response to a colleague's question as to whether he intended to employ ... (Show more)
"In my personal opinion, I hate anything chemical-female at all and I wish that the ladies study anything else but chemistry, because they are not suited for it”, was the rant of chemist Carl Duisberg in 1898 in response to a colleague's question as to whether he intended to employ women at Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. And even more than 100 years later, career paths for chemists continue to be much more successful than for female chemists. In an interdisciplinary comparison across companies and epochs, I examine the change in the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion of women from the chemical industry over the past century with the help of Max Weber's concept of social closure. Even though Weber himself did not list the inequality characteristic gender for exclusion from social or economic groups, it is nevertheless one of the most serious exclusion criteria from occupational branches and positions. Therefore the concept of social closure found its way into the sociology of professions from the mid-1980s onwards. Feminist theorists such as Ilse Costas, Eva Cyba and Anne Witz included Weber's theory of social closure in their research, which, following Frank Parkin, also enabled the analysis of power structures.
My broad time frame, characterised by far-reaching political and social upheavals, enables a well-founded investigation of the professional development and positioning of female chemists and laboratory assistants. To be able to analytically grasp the process of change in the social closure of occupational fields over this long period of time, I have operationalised comparative categories using the concept of social inequality between the sexes according to Nancy Fraser, in order to be able to relate the results of the respective eras to each other. According to Nancy Fraser, gender justice in a capitalist society must be established on three levels: Representation, Distribution and Recognition. The dimension of recognition includes the granting of esteem, appreciation and respect. The dimension of representation describes the visibility of women in professional and social spheres, and the dimension of distribution describes factors such as resources, income, position and power. Based on my cross-epoch research project on the presence, roles and career models of scientifically educated women in the German chemical industry between 1900 and 1990, I would like to show in my contribution how Weber's theory can be practically implemented in an interdisciplinary social history. (Show less)

Olga Tabachnikova, Natalia Vinokurova : Oral History through the Prism of Gender Research: Russian Scientists’ Preferences in the Sphere of Employment for the Younger Generation
In the previous years, we have already presented our findings from the Oral History project conducted in Russia over the last decades. Our results concerned the narratives of Russian scientists who had been our investigations’ respondents. The purpose of the current work, based on our social science research, is to ... (Show more)
In the previous years, we have already presented our findings from the Oral History project conducted in Russia over the last decades. Our results concerned the narratives of Russian scientists who had been our investigations’ respondents. The purpose of the current work, based on our social science research, is to identify the presence (or absence) of gender differences in the recommendations of Russian male and female scientists on choosing a professional career for the younger generation.
The work is rooted in the materials of a questionnaire-based survey of academics, including university professors, aimed at identifying their views regarding the future of their children and grandchildren. In particular, it includes the preferences of the respondents when choosing the field of employment they would like to see the younger generation engaged in. Studies of the population's preferences regarding the prestige of professions, their importance for Russia, as well as the choice of professions for young people, have been carried out regularly since the late nineties (see [1], [2], [3]). A distinctive feature of our current study is that only one social group was surveyed – that of academics. The vast majority of respondents have scientific degrees and titles.
On the one hand, the representatives of this group are parents (or grandparents) who give recommendations based on their parental feelings. As can be seen from the works on this topic, in this case, the desire of the respondents that their children should have a stable job and be financially secure dominates. On the other hand, it is a group of experts that have greater professional knowledge in comparison with the rest of the population regarding promising areas of employment, new technologies and promising areas of science. Therefore, the respondents were asked questions not about promising professions, but about the types of economic activity that, in their opinion, are suitable for the children. Respondents were also asked to give recommendations for the choice to be made by their children (grandchildren) regarding new areas of scientific or engineering activity. Another important feature of the questionnaire is the inclusion of questions that provide justification for the choices made by the experts. In addition, in comparison with other studies, the time horizon addressed in this work was extended so that the respondents assessed the estimated prospects of employment sectors and research fields in five, ten, fifteen and twenty years.
The study revealed the existence of gender stereotypes and the presence of certain gender differences among respondents who were supposed to give their expert opinions regarding the choice of promising areas of employment for young people. Not only will this paper present the results of our unique sociological survey, but will also provide our interpretation and analysis of them.

Bibliography:
1. ‘Russians respect lawyers and doctors’. Available on the website: https://iq.hse.ru/news/177668056.html. Accessed 16/03/2022.
2. ‘Why Russians respect doctors but want to work at Gazprom’. Available on the website: https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2017/08/31/731699-rossiyane-uvazhayut. Accessed 16/03/2022.
3. ‘VTsIOM named the most prestigious professions, according to Russians’. Available on the website: https://www.dp.ru/a/2018/10/24/VCIOM_nazval_samie_presti. Accessed 16/03/2022. (Show less)



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