To bring together scholars who explain historical phenomena using the methods of the social sciences

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Wed 4 April
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 5 April
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Fri 6 April
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 7 April
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    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
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Wednesday 4 April 2018 8.30 - 10.30
A-1 - AFR01 : Children and Labour in Africa
LAN/OG/047 Lanyon Building
Network: Africa Chairs: Pedro Goulart, Elise Van Nederveen Meerkerk
Organizers: Pedro Goulart, Joan-Pau Jordà, Elise Van Nederveen MeerkerkDiscussants: Pedro Goulart, Joan-Pau Jordà, Elise Van Nederveen Meerkerk
Kleoniki Alexopoulou : Education and Child Labour as Communicating Vessels: Portuguese Africa (1890s-1970s)
Portuguese Africa performed poorly in terms of either official or mission-led education expansion. According to previous literature, the colonial states adopted the “learning by doing” principle to generate skilled labour (Madeira 2005). In parallel, Portuguese rule used various forms of forced labour, including female and child labour, until the late ... (Show more)
Portuguese Africa performed poorly in terms of either official or mission-led education expansion. According to previous literature, the colonial states adopted the “learning by doing” principle to generate skilled labour (Madeira 2005). In parallel, Portuguese rule used various forms of forced labour, including female and child labour, until the late colonial era. This paper explores the impact of colonial labour policies and education investments on child labour and school enrolment of African children in Portuguese Mozambique and Angola. Annual series on education investments are retrieved from the colonial records, shedding light on the complementary roles of the Portuguese colonial states and the missionaries, in line with the literature on other parts of colonial Africa. On the other hand, the paper investigates how extensively child labour was used in the two main Portuguese colonies. Despite the scarce statistical data, qualitative evidence indicates general trends in the importance of child labour and its particular forms over time. I test the following hypotheses: First, when forced labour was abolished, the use of child labour was also restricted and enrolment rates increased. Second, when public investments in education rose, school enrolment rates rose and child labour reduced. Finally, I test an alternative, non-exclusive scenario: At times, African children and youth were used not only as informal labour (for example in family farming), but also as formal skilled labour. The rudimentary schools and vocational training centers that targeted African children played a considerable role in the formalisation of child labour in the Portuguese colonies. (Show less)

Enriqueta Camps : Childhood, Religion and Gender in Nigeria during the Early Postcolocial Period
This paper examines child work in the age group 10-14 in Nigeria in the early postcolonial period, from 1960 when Nigeria attained colonial independence to 1966 before the beginnings of the civil war. In particular, it examines the differences of child labor patterns in the informal economy according to religion ... (Show more)
This paper examines child work in the age group 10-14 in Nigeria in the early postcolonial period, from 1960 when Nigeria attained colonial independence to 1966 before the beginnings of the civil war. In particular, it examines the differences of child labor patterns in the informal economy according to religion (Christian or Muslim) and gender. Since independence income inequality has been rising in Nigeria. And the proportion of people living below the 1$ threshold poverty line has been rising as well. In this context we explore the features of increasing use of children work, often hand by hand with their mothers, due to the household need to complete the incomes necessary to afford basic expenditures. We exclude from our analysis work in extractive activities and concentrate in agriculture and industries.
We find significant results on the role of religion and gender regarding work patterns of boys and girls. While in Christian areas child labor conditions are comparable to those observed in 19th century developing countries of Europe, in Muslim areas working conditions are harder, particularly for girls and their mothers. Regarding to this latest aspect we present complementary information on the differences in child mortality, child income and life expectancies controlled by gender in the Muslim area making comparisons with the Christian area. (Show less)

Ivo Mhike : White Children and Labour Crisis in Southern Rhodesia in the 1930s
The global economic crisis of the 1930s hit the British empire and in Southern Rhodesia, white unemployment tore the social fabric of society. In particular, school leavers swelled the ranks of the unemployed because they lacked the requisite skills and educational qualification to justify their employment over Africans who could ... (Show more)
The global economic crisis of the 1930s hit the British empire and in Southern Rhodesia, white unemployment tore the social fabric of society. In particular, school leavers swelled the ranks of the unemployed because they lacked the requisite skills and educational qualification to justify their employment over Africans who could be paid lower wages. The job colour bar system was subverted by economic imperatives. Rhodesian social planners viewed the youth labour crisis as a fundamental threat to the entire colonial design. Consequently, the state adopted an aggressive paternalism and instituted new extra-market measures to secure youth employment through policies couched in emergent sentiments of economic nationalism. New policies ranged from a new educational policy, apprenticeship laws, exclusionary immigration policy to the development of Juvenile Affairs Boards. Using archival material, the study evaluates how labour influenced the constructions of childhood and state making in Southern Rhodesia. Traditional works on child labour and colonial labour regimes have focused on the African, the proverbial ‘beast of burden’. This study is a lens into how white society used labour to construct childhood values of responsibility, masculinity and citizenship. In addition, it analyses youth purchase for policy in times of economic and social strife (Show less)

Israel Saibu Abayomi , Cecelia Clement : Child Labour and Crime in Lagos, Nigeria: the Dilema of Endangered Species and Trajectory to Sustainable Development
Child labour is not an uncommon sight in the city of Lagos, Nigeria and as well as other African cities. It is believed that the engagement of children in labour is an integral part of African culture and tradition. In some quarters, it is also believed that parents give birth ... (Show more)
Child labour is not an uncommon sight in the city of Lagos, Nigeria and as well as other African cities. It is believed that the engagement of children in labour is an integral part of African culture and tradition. In some quarters, it is also believed that parents give birth to as many children as possible to support labour needed on farmlands. In Lagos as well as in Nigeria children are engaged as house-help in the homes of the wealthy few in the society, or as streets or highway hawkers of various items, alms begging along with parents, and other related engagements. All these impede the child’s education. These activities also expose the child to danger and abuses, as well as criminal tendencies. sometimes, children are kidnapped, robbed, sexually assaulted or even killed. Some of these children also become influenced by crime syndicates or undesirable elements they mingle with, on the streets, and in motor-parks. Child labour cannot be rationalized under any pretext. Life is dynamic, change is inevitable, culture is changing and tradition must give way for meaningful development to take place, most especially debilitating and retrogressive culture that demeans the value and dignity of the child. This paper examines the history of child labour in Nigeria, various forms of child labour, exposure of children to crime, effect of child labour on school enrolment and way forward for sustainable development. (Show less)