To bring together scholars who explain historical phenomena using the methods of the social sciences

Programme

Wed 4 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 5 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30
    19.00 - 20.15
    20.30 - 22.00

Fri 6 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 7 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.00 - 17.00

All days
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Wednesday 4 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00
G-2 - LAT06 : Traveling Scientists and the Politics of Translating Science in the Americas
MAP/OG/018 Maths and Physics
Networks: Science & Technology , Latin America Chair: Brett Troyan
Organizer: Jadwiga E. Pieper MooneyDiscussants: -
Philipp Altmann : Imported Sociology and Local Marxism: Ecuadorian Social Sciences between the Blocs
Sociology in Ecuador became an independent academic discipline in the 1960s. Connected to a political project by a centre-left government and the main university, the first move to institutionalize sociology was created with the help of the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. This “imported” aspect of institution-building was ... (Show more)
Sociology in Ecuador became an independent academic discipline in the 1960s. Connected to a political project by a centre-left government and the main university, the first move to institutionalize sociology was created with the help of the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. This “imported” aspect of institution-building was quickly criticized by students; in the late 1960s, it also helped incite a complete reform driven by a group of people under the name of `tzantzicos´ whose project was to mix art and politics. Tzantzicos, interested yet inexpert in Marxism, sought to increase their academic weight through support by members academically trained in Europe. The result was a local brand of Marxism tightly connected to a literary treatment of facts called ensayismo. This presentation seeks to shed light on the development of early sociology in Ecuador in the context of these interactions. It explores the role of travelling academics, both foreign and nationals, in the process of institutionalizing the discipline of sociology. (Show less)

Benjamin Cowan : Race, Gender, Cold War Fears, and the Subjectivities of Etymology: the Linguistic Purchase of Machismo
This study seeks to shift the framework of decades-long debate on the nature and significance of machismo, debunking the commonly held notion that the word describes a primordial Iberian and Ibero-American phenomenon. I trace the emergence of machismo as an English-language term, arguing that a tradition of unselfconsciously ethnocentric scholarship ... (Show more)
This study seeks to shift the framework of decades-long debate on the nature and significance of machismo, debunking the commonly held notion that the word describes a primordial Iberian and Ibero-American phenomenon. I trace the emergence of machismo as an English-language term, arguing that a tradition of unselfconsciously ethnocentric scholarship in the 1940s and 1950s enabled the word’s entrance, by the 1960s, into popular sources. In fact, machismo was something of a neologism in Spanish—but mid-century scholarship in the United States presumed the category’s empirical validity, reaffirmed it via circular logics, and applied the concept to perceived problems in Latin American and Latin@ cultures. Much of machismo’s linguistic purchase—the reason it has become a shorthand for global hypermasculinity—stemmed from mid-to-late twentieth century anxieties about hemispheric security, the Cold War, immigration, and overpopulation, particularly vis-à-vis the United States’ near neighbors, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Combining manual consultation with optical character recognition, I have sought out the word’s earliest appearance in various English-language media (books, scholarly articles, newspapers, magazines, and television) and explained how it has long escaped scrutiny as a construct in and of itself. As a result, machismo has resisted the most earnest and well-intentioned of challenges to its scholarly primacy, and remains a pathologizing point of departure in approaches to Latin American gender systems. (Show less)

Jadwiga E. Pieper Mooney : Traveling Experts in the Americas: Doctors, Demographers, and the Deployment of Science in the Cold War
In this study I focus on Chile and the Americas, and on medical doctors’ new attention to demography as an indispensable part of public health education in the Cold War. Doctors and demographers met at international conferences to discuss the need for curricular changes and the importance of demographic sciences. ... (Show more)
In this study I focus on Chile and the Americas, and on medical doctors’ new attention to demography as an indispensable part of public health education in the Cold War. Doctors and demographers met at international conferences to discuss the need for curricular changes and the importance of demographic sciences. They also exchanged knowledge about the subject through publications in journals and research monographs. Their arguments show details about specific public health concerns in the region, but they also reveal that Cold War competitions became vital elements in proposed educational strategies and transnational alliances among traveling scientists with educational-political agendas. While schools of public health have often provided both leadership and trained personnel for changes in governmental programs, their advisory functions became increasingly politicized. The Cold War context provided exceptional spaces for political alliances among doctors, demographers, and policy makers - as well as connections to transnational institutions who agreed that pressing concerns of population growth caused problems in public health, development, and national stability. I seek to explore these alliances not only in the context of the deliberations of traveling scientists and nation-state experts, but also in the context of the political roles and the transnational reach of diverse institutions such as the Rockefeller Foundation and the Milbank Memorial Fund in the United States, as well as the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE) in Chile. (Show less)

Peter B. Soland : ‘Tickling the Dragon's Tail': Technocracy, Moral Politics, and Nuclear Policy in Latin America
The establishment of nuclear science in Mexico began with the escape of Marietta Blau Goldwin from Nazi-occupied Austria in 1938. Goldwin, recommendation from Albert Einstein in hand, fled to Mexico City where she pioneered studies in nuclear physics at the Polytechnic School there. This dramatic beginning to the country’s nuclear ... (Show more)
The establishment of nuclear science in Mexico began with the escape of Marietta Blau Goldwin from Nazi-occupied Austria in 1938. Goldwin, recommendation from Albert Einstein in hand, fled to Mexico City where she pioneered studies in nuclear physics at the Polytechnic School there. This dramatic beginning to the country’s nuclear program illuminated how global processes were inextricable from the development of atomic energy. As government officials pursued an increasingly active foreign policy agenda during the Cold War, Mexico emerged as a regional authority on the nuclear issue between 1964 and 1967. Nations throughout Latin America sent delegates to Mexico City during this period to grapple with the “nuclear question.” Talks culminated in the 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco, an agreement that curtailed the proliferation of nuclear weapons, but which also carried implications for its adoption as an energy source. Negotiations led to the formation of two blocs: the first, led by Mexico, which championed a cautious approach and the second, led by Brazil and Argentina, which resisted limitations on nuclear development. This paper explores how the “nuclear question” shaped politics and foreign relations throughout Latin America. It demonstrates how Cold War issues took on distinctly regional characteristics as national governments reinterpreted them in ways that accounted for their unique ambitions, concerns, and international relationships. It argues that Mexico’s more conservative approach reflected officials’ desire to position the country as a moral leader in the region while preserving economic ties to the United States, while Argentina and Brazil hoped to legitimize their respective modernization programs through achievements in the nuclear sciences. (Show less)