Friday 6 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00Z-10 - SOC10b : The Co-Constitution of Public and Private Actors (II): Building the Transnational Field of Welfare in the 19th and 20th Centuries
Music Lecture Theatre School of Music
This paper analyzes the transnational mobilization of an organization known as the International Migration Service (IMS). In 1921, at the suggestion of the American branch of the Young Woman’s Christian Association (YWCA), a group of American female social workers created an international service to look after women emigrating across borders. ... (Show more)
This paper analyzes the transnational mobilization of an organization known as the International Migration Service (IMS). In 1921, at the suggestion of the American branch of the Young Woman’s Christian Association (YWCA), a group of American female social workers created an international service to look after women emigrating across borders. The organization launched its activities in 1924 using its network with branches in several countries (Europe and America). Drawing on archival material from the US and French branches, International Labour Organisation and League of Nations’s archives, the paper focuses on composition, resources and strategies of the organization. Based on the study of its national branches and its collaboration with governments and intergovernmental agencies, we will discuss its transnational practices. On the one hand, it helps to understand the interaction between State players, private associations and international organizations. On the other hand, it sheds light on the construction of the migration issue considered in a social and international perspective. (Show less)
Célia Keren : Is a Transnational Social Welfare Programme Possible? The Evacuation of Spanish Children to France, the International Working-Class Movement and the Spanish Republic (1936-1939)
During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, more than 25,000 children were transported from Republican Spain to foreign countries, among which at least 10,000 went to France. The whole initiative originated from French civil society, with many private actors such as political parties, trade unions, churches, masonic lodges and intellectual ... (Show more)
During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, more than 25,000 children were transported from Republican Spain to foreign countries, among which at least 10,000 went to France. The whole initiative originated from French civil society, with many private actors such as political parties, trade unions, churches, masonic lodges and intellectual networks which using their transnational ties in order to promote and organize the evacuation and care of Spanish children in France. But nothing could be done without the Spanish governement’s consent. When it finally agreed, in November 1936, to entrust thousands of Spanish children to the French Comité d’accueil aux enfants d’Espagne, which was being set up by the French trade union centre, the Confédération générale du travail (the CGT), the Spanish Republic’s governement, and its newly-founded Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, designed a very original piece of transnationally-run welfare/relief programme.
Admittedly, the Spanish children evacuation scheme developed along the usual path taken by social welfare programmes of the early 20th century (such as infant protection for instance), with private initiatives being co-opted and regulated by the State, thus forming hybrid private/public structures wherein the State provided an overarching structure and legitimacy to the social work carried out by private actors on the ground. This ordinary public/private model proves all the more true in this case since in Spain, the evacuation scheme was a welfare public policy managed at the ministerial level; whereas in France, it was a privately-led humanitarian relief programme funded through donations. But in this particular case, and contrary to infant or child protection, colonies de vacances and other social welfare programmes, the State in question was Spanish whereas the private partners were French (as well as Dutch, Czech, or Swedish).
The aim of this paper is thus to examine how a private French humanitarian initiative could give rise to a major welfare public policy in Spain, thereby contributing to the development of a new ministerial administration (the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, created for the anarchist leader Federica Montseny in november 1936). It will analyze the inner workings of such a public/private partnership and question the relevance of the national divide in the power relations between the two partners: did it matter that the children at stake were, in the end, Spanish nationals, placed under the legal protection of their State? Did all that matter was left-wing antifascist solidarity? Or did all that matter in the end was who had the money to take care of the Spanish children? (Show less)
Catherine Maurer : The Co-Constitution of Public and Private Actors: Building the Transnational Field of Social Protection in German and French Cities at the End of the 19th Century
Through the study of fifteen cities (eight French cities, seven German cities, to which can be added the specific case of the “Franco-German” city of Strasbourg), we wish to shed light from a transnational standpoint on the interactions between Catholic organizations involved in social welfare and city councils, whose welfare ... (Show more)
Through the study of fifteen cities (eight French cities, seven German cities, to which can be added the specific case of the “Franco-German” city of Strasbourg), we wish to shed light from a transnational standpoint on the interactions between Catholic organizations involved in social welfare and city councils, whose welfare policies were being overhauled at the end of the 19th century. Catholic charity work is a long-standing tradition, dating back to the Middle Ages and the first hospital foundations, but the period after the French Revolution had witnessed a new upsurge of activity. Private charitable organizations and local public welfare had then established pacified relations of cooperation, in the interest of both parties. City councils were in fact taking up the ancient practice of cooperating with private – and especially Catholic – initiatives, in various ways, ranging from the employment of a self-proclaimed Catholic staff, the attention paid to issues of religion in the working of the administrative bodies, or the grant of public subsidies.
In all of Europe, at the end of the 19th century, the issues surrounding welfare gained an increasing importance in the context of a new competition for influence and of the politicization of city councils’ action. The Republican, secular attack led in France against the influence of the Catholic religion in society also jeopardized the tradition of cooperation. Yet, in almost all the cities under study, there does not seem to have been any instance of a permanent and merciless war waged between city councils and private – mainly Catholic – initiatives, even at the end of the century. The transnational comparison between German and French cities shows that the extent of the conflicts and disputes itself may be qualified. The attacks led by the advocates of secularism were neither that consistent, nor that determined. At the eve of the First World War, the system of cooperation had been maintained and renewed, not only on the scale of the city, but also with the added dimension of State intervention, as public welfare agencies could not solve all problems alone and private charities could not anymore act on their own. (Show less)
Judith Rainhorn : From the « Social Settlement » to the Public Labor Administration: Dr. Alice Hamilton, a Female Pathway through the American Welfare State under Construction (1889-1935)
Born in East London in the early 1880s, the « Settlement » movement quickly spread accross the Atlantic in large industrialized cities. Mostly lead by strong and influential women, it gave birth to core centers for reform activities among the working class as education, training, health, relief and social care ... (Show more)
Born in East London in the early 1880s, the « Settlement » movement quickly spread accross the Atlantic in large industrialized cities. Mostly lead by strong and influential women, it gave birth to core centers for reform activities among the working class as education, training, health, relief and social care activities. One of the most famous and influential of these is Hull House, in Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1889 by Jane Addams, which constantly gathered not less than twelve permanent residents, including Dr. Alice Hamilton. As a physician, she set up a mother-infant consultation in the poor and immigrant living area, and there met the occupational disease issue, as both an obvious and nevertheless invisible disease of industrial modernity.
Hamilton soon became a pillar of this private woman-based philantropic organisation dealing with immigrant populations in Chicago, which actually was at that time one of the cores of social reform in the US, where she stayed during twenty years as a full-time resident. Because of the expertise she gained from this local and community-based experience, Hamilton was appointed in 1908 by the governor of Illinois as a « special investigator on industrial poisons » to the newly founded Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases, the first such investigative body in the US. Her report resulted in the first workers compensation law passed in Illinois, soon followed by other American states.
From the private institution (Hull House), Hamilton has been moving to the state (local) level, to the federal social welfare bodies, such as U.S. Bureau Statistics of Labor, and to global ones, as she served as a member of the League of Nations Health Committee and international expert to the ILO in the 1920s. In these various arenas, she has participated in the rise of social protection patterns, on various scales of private and public intervention, leading to make visible to the public’s notice what long remained an invisible threat to the health of the people: the silent epidemic due to the growing use of industrial poisons. My paper will enlighten this outstanding path, emphasizing in what extent it is emblematic of the building of a welfare policy through political and knowledge-based networks. As Kathryn K. Sklar (1995) has stressed, the Hull House experience enabled women reformers to develop capacity for political and scientific leadership. Hamilton’s work path also contributes to reassess the intellectual, social and technical comings and goings between Europe and the US, in the context of the building of an international epistemic community dealing with social issues, and especially occupational health.
Fitzpatrick, Ellen. Endless Crusade: Women Social Scientists and Progressive Reform. New York, Oxford University Press, 1990.
Hamilton, Alice. Exploring the Dangerous Trades. The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton. Boston, Little, Borwn and Cy, 1943.
Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings. Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.
Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers,” Ch. 7 from Leonard Dinnerstein and Kenneth T. Jackson, eds., American Vistas: 1877 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995: 108-127. (Show less)