To bring together scholars who explain historical phenomena using the methods of the social sciences

Programme

Showing: Women and Gender (all days)
Wed 4 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Thu 5 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30
    19.00 - 20.15
    20.30 - 22.00

Fri 6 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.30 - 18.30

Sat 7 April
    8.30 - 10.30
    11.00 - 13.00
    14.00 - 16.00
    16.00 - 17.00

All days
Wednesday 4 April 2018 8.30 - 10.30
S-1 - SEX01a : Birth Control Movements and Activism in the Twentieth Century: Transnational Perspectives from Catholic Countries I
PFC/03/006B Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Networks: Sexuality , Women and Gender Chair: Laura Kelly
Organizers: Agata Ignaciuk, Laura KellyDiscussant: Caroline Rusterholz
Anne-Sophie Crosetti : Pro Vita and Catholic Planned Parenthood: A Conflict on Abortion Right amidst Catholics Groups in Belgium (1960-1970)
Sylwia Kuzma-Markowska : Local and International Activities of the Society for Conscious Motherhood in State-Socialist Poland
Lucia Pozzi : Practices, Discourses and Oppositions to Birth Control in Twentieth Century Italy
Cassia Roth : Malthus in the Tropics: Sterilization, Medicine, and the Catholic Church


X-1 - WOM05 : Loss and Loneliness.
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Anne Montenach
Organizer: Katie BarclayDiscussants: -
Katie Barclay : Loneliness and Community in Early Modern Scotland
Elaine Chalus : Quite Alone? Considering Separation and Loneliness during the Napoleonic Wars
Marjo Kaartinen : “There is a trace of you in the air of that room” – Practices of Coping with Separation from a Friend. The Case of Vera Hjelt (1857–1947)
Nina Koefoed : Marriage, Protestantism and Loneliness
Deborah Simonton : Voices from Lost Homelands



Wednesday 4 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00
F-2 - WOM02a : Gender in the Global City. New Research on Gendered Urban Spaces I
MAP/OG/017 Maths and Physics
Networks: Urban , Women and Gender Chair: Sanne Muurling
Organizer: Danielle van den HeuvelDiscussant: Elizabeth Cohen
Bebio Amaro : Gender and Urban Space in Edo (1600-1850)
Lisa Hellman : The City of Women: the Gendered Spaces of Eighteenth-century Canton
Bob Pierik : Gender in the Streets of Amsterdam (1600-1850)
Danielle van den Heuvel : Freedom of the Streets. Some Thoughts on Gender and Urban Space in the Pre-modern Era


L-2 - WOM01 : Formal and Informal Networks of Migrant Women and Men in Settlement Process (14th-19th Centuries)
PFC/02/013 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Amy Erickson
Organizer: Beatrice Zucca MichelettoDiscussants: Amy Erickson, Beatrice Zucca Micheletto
Fabrice Langrognet : Gender in Crossings: Identifications and Networks of Migrant Men and Women in the Plaine-Saint-Denis, 1880-1914
Charmian Mansell : ‘I canne staye away no Longer’: Gendered Patterns of Servant Migration in the Church Court Depositions of Early Modern England
Thomas Verbruggen : The Strategies of Foreign Women and their Employers in the Belgian Domestic Service Labour Market (1850-1910)


X-2 - WOM06 : Militant Women. Gender, Class and Militancy in Revolutionary Movements 1916–1920
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Jessica Richter
Organizers: Veronika Helfert, Katharina HermannDiscussant: Jessica Richter
Veronika Helfert : Is there a Female Austrian Revolutionary? On the Configuration of the Revolutionary Worker, 1916–1920
Katharina Hermann : Without a Revolution – Militancy in the Workers Movement in Switzerland during First World War
Matthew Stibbe : Understanding Socialist Women’s Perspectives on Violence and Revolution: the Case of Germany and Austria, 1916–1920
Judith Szapor : Gender, Violence and Militancy: Reactions to Rosa Luxemburg’s Murder in Revolutionary Hungary, 1918–1919



Wednesday 4 April 2018 14.00 - 16.00
B-3 - MID11 : Medieval Urban Women in Legal Norms and Social Practice – East Central Europe in Comparison
OSCR Lanyon Building
Networks: Middle Ages , Women and Gender Chair: Michaela Antonín Malaníková
Organizer: Michaela Antonín MalaníkováDiscussants: -
Irena Benyovsky Latin : Residential Mobility of Patrician Women in Late Medieval Dubrovnik (Ragusa)
Marija Mogorovic Crljenko : The Legal Status of Women in Istrian Coastal Towns in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period
Beata Mozejko : Legal Status of Men and Women in Medieval Gdansk as Compared withH Other Polish and Prussian Towns
Nada Zecevic : Maximum vilipendium, dedecus et scandalum? Gender Violence in the Towns in Albania Veneta, 14th-15th c.


F-3 - WOM02b : Gender in the Global City: New Research on Gendered Urban Spaces II
MAP/OG/017 Maths and Physics
Networks: Urban , Women and Gender Chair: Sanne Muurling
Organizer: Danielle van den HeuvelDiscussant: Elizabeth Cohen
Emma Hart : Men and Women in the Eighteenth-Century British American Provisioning Trade
Miki Sugiura : Selling her Possessions Home: Women's Agencies in the Formation of Urban Space in 18th Century Cape Town
Antonia Weiss : Gender and Urban Nature in the Modernising City
Suze Zijlstra : Women in Trans-Atlantic News Networks in Dutch Port Towns


S-3 - WOM12 : Visualising Gender and Sexuality
PFC/03/006B Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Marianna Muravyeva
Organizers: -Discussant: Marianna Muravyeva
Lessie Jo Frazier : Capitalist Dispossession and Revolutionary Memory: Leftist Women’s Kinship Narratives, Photographic Chronicles, and Poetics
Rosalia Guerrero Cantarell : Rags-to-Riches Narrative in Mexican Cinema
Natalia Knekht : Soviet Woman Image Evolution in Russian Cinema and TV Projects: History and Contemporaneity


X-3 - WOM09a : Women’s Wages and Time Allocation in Western Europe during Pre-industrial and Industrial Times (16th- Early 20th Centuries) I
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Networks: Labour , Women and Gender Chair: Manuela Martini
Organizers: Manuela Martini, Anne Montenach, Ariadne SchmidtDiscussants: Raffaella Sarti, Ariadne Schmidt
Imogene Dudley : Women's Wages in the Early Modern South-west of England
Christof Jeggle : Gendered Remuneration? Producing and Selling Linen in Early Modern Münster / Westphalia
Anne Montenach : “The Bazaar Economy of the Trades”: Gender and Wage Systems in the Late Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-century Lyon Textile Industry



Wednesday 4 April 2018 16.30 - 18.30
W-4 - WOM22 : Women's Movement and Activism
6 CP/01/037 6 College Park, School of Sociology
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Lessie Jo Frazier
Organizers: -Discussant: Henk de Smaele
Nancy Forestell : Rethinking Canadian Suffrage Politics in the Context of British Settler Colonialism, 1914-1918
Luciana-Marioara Jinga : Women Nurture, Men Protect, or Not? Gender Roles in the Transnational Humanitarian Commitment for Children in Romania (1980-2007)
Cristina Scheibe Wolff : Reason and Emotion: Women Activism against Dictatorships in Southern Cone do America. 1968-1985


X-4 - WOM09b : Women’s Wages and Time Allocation in Western Europe during Pre-industrial and Industrial Times (16th- Early 20th Centuries) II
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Cristina Borderias
Organizers: -Discussants: Raffaella Sarti, Ariadne Schmidt
Corinne Boter : Female Wages and the Gender Wage Gap: the Impact of Industrialization on Dutch Women’s Position in the Labour Market Mirrored in the British Experience, 1750-1914
Victoria López Barahona : Wool Hand-Spinning Wages in Eighteenth-Century Inland Spain
Manuela Martini : Gendered Division of Work and Wage Conflicts in the Lyon Slk Trades at the End of the 19th Century



Thursday 5 April 2018 8.30 - 10.30
M-5 - ELI06 : Female Entrepreneurs as Business Elite: Property Rights and Ownership, 18th - 20th Centuries
PFC/02/017 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Networks: Economic History , Elites and Forerunners , Women and Gender Chair: Marja Vuorinen
Organizers: Susana Martínez-Rodríguez, Galina UlyanovaDiscussant: Béatrice Craig
Susana Martínez-Rodríguez : Business Enterprises with Female Partners in Spain. Evidence from the First 50 Years of the Spanish Business Register
Galina Ulyanova : Female Entrepreneurs as Board Directors and Stakeholders of the Biggest Russian Joint-stock Companies, 1870-1900


Q-5 - WOM23 : Constructing Gender
PFC/03/005 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Helena Bergman
Organizers: -Discussants: -
Dijana Dijanic : Politics of Leisure Time
Ramona Mihaila , George Lazaroiu : The Instrumental Function of Gendered Citizenship and Symbolic Politics in the Social Construction of Labor Rights for Migrants
Olga Porshneva : Bolshevik Design of Gender Relations in the Early Soviet Period: Official Discourse and Social Practices (based on Materials from the Urals Region)


V-5 - LAB04a : Domestic Service and Regulation in Colonial Societies
6 CP/01/035 6 College Park, School of Sociology
Networks: Family and Demography , Labour , Women and Gender Chair: Raffaella Sarti
Organizer: Nitin VarmaDiscussant: Raffaella Sarti
Shireen Ally : White Mother's Baby, Black Nanny's Maybe? Race and Maternity in Colonial Domestic Service
Claire Lowrie : Protectors or Perpetrators? White Masters and the Colonial Implications of Violence by and towards Domestic Servants in the Northern Territory of Australia and Singapore, 1880s-1930s.
Nitin Sinha : The Power of Failure: Colonial Regulations and Domestic Servants in Early Colonial India
Nitin Varma : Masters of Home: Regulating Master Servant Relationship in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century India


X-5 - WOM08 : Women Travellers in Europe and Far Beyond (1750-1830): Exploration, Experience, Reflection
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Leonie Hannan
Organizer: Nataliia VoloshkovaDiscussant: Leonie Hannan
Sutapa Dutta : Defining Female Space and Agency: British Women Travelers to India in the Eighteenth Century
Tania Robles Ballesteros : Travelling to Gain Freedom: Germaine de Staël and Exile
Barbare Tetti : Ruins, Remains and Monuments: Charlotte Eaton’s Correspondence from Rome, 1816-1817
Nataliia Voloshkova : 'A Competent Witness': Mary Holderness and her Ethnographic Exploration of Crimea in the Early Nineteenth Century



Thursday 5 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00
O-6 - WOM10 : The Two-supporter-model in Early Modern Scandinavia
PFC/02/026 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Karin Hassan Jansson
Organizer: Karin Hassan JanssonDiscussant: Amy Erickson
Maria Ågren : The State as Master: Gender, State Formation and Commercialisation in Urban Sweden, 1650-1780
Pirita Frigren : Migrant Work and Supporting a Family: the Case of Finnish Merchant Sailors’ Households, 1830-1870
Sofia Maria Gustafsson : The Soldier’s Wife: The Solid Economic Base for the Swedish Army in the Eighteenth Century


X-6 - WOM07 : Secrets and Silences: Exploring the Hidden Lives of Families
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Shurlee Swain
Organizer: Birgitte SolandDiscussant: Shurlee Swain
Christina Benninghaus : Silence: Coping with Infertility in 19th Century Germany
Birgitte Soland : Vanishing Violence: The Mysterious Disappearance of Wife-Beating in Early-Twentieth Century Denmark
Mari Välimäki : Sons and Their Confidantes. The Relationship Between Sons and Mothers in a 17th Century Nordic Town
Karen Vallgårda : Ugly Intimacies and the Management of Knowledge in Danish 20th Century Divorces


Y-6 - WOM04 : Violence against Women
11UQ/01/010 University Square
Networks: Criminal Justice , Women and Gender Chair: Manon van der Heijden
Organizers: -Discussant: Manon van der Heijden
Martin Bergman : The Discovery, Construction, and Explanation of a Crime–differing Policies in Different Countries
Bonnie Clementsson : Testimonies of Swedish Convicts in 1840
Cinzia Meraviglia , Gabriele La Ros, Federica Mazzocco, Giulia Prandoni & Martina Toma : Femicide in Italy as a Modern Witch-craze?
Marianna Muravyeva : Killing Mothers: Violence against Women in a Modernising Society



Thursday 5 April 2018 14.00 - 16.00
V-7 - LAB06 : Gender, Military Labour and War Labour
6 CP/01/035 6 College Park, School of Sociology
Networks: Labour , Women and Gender Chair: Giulio Ongaro
Organizer: Fia SundevallDiscussant: Aurelia Martín Casares
Anders Ahlbäck : Military Officers as Paragons of Manly Virtue and Incarnations of Manly Vice in the Nordic Countries, circa 1920
Christine de Matos : The Occupied Home: Domestic Work, Gender and Power in the Allied Occupation of Germany, 1945-1950s
Esbjörn Larsson : On the Changing Perceptions of Women’s Role in the Nation’s Defence during the Age of Total War: the Introduction of Defence Service Training for Girls in Sweden during World War II
Fia Sundevall : Gender, Military Labour, and Swedish Cold War Economy: Challenging the ‘Peace Came, Women Left’ Paradigm



Thursday 5 April 2018 16.30 - 18.30
H-8 - CUL16 : (Trans)national Feminist Practices in the Nordic Countries since the 1960s
MST/03/004 Main Site Tower
Networks: Culture , Women and Gender Chairs: -
Organizers: Heidi Kurvinen, Arja TurunenDiscussants: -
Elisabeth Elgán : 1970’s Feminist Activism: Archives vs Testimonies
Heidi Kurvinen : Feminist Practices in Swedish and Finnish Newsrooms 1970–1990: Interpreting Oral Histories and Media Texts
Arja Turunen : “I am a Feminist because I don’t fit in”: Life Stories of Finnish Second Wave Feminists
Hannah Yoken : Transnational Influences & Connections: Exploring Finnish and Swedish Feminist Magazines, 1970s–1990s.


V-8 - LAB08 : Labour on the Margins – Gender and the Complexities of Provision 1890-2016
6 CP/01/035 6 College Park, School of Sociology
Networks: Labour , Women and Gender Chair: Dorothy Sue Cobble
Organizer: Yvonne SvanströmDiscussant: Silke Neunsinger
Magaly Rodríguez García : Is Sex Work Work? The Debate Continues (1920s to the Present).
Yvonne Svanström : Unemployed and Forced to Labour: Vagrancy, Legislation and Gender in Sweden 1920s - 1950s
Frode Ulvund : Idle Women? Vagrancy, Forced Labour and Gender in Norway, c 1890-1940
Gillian Wylie : Devoured by a (Celtic) Tiger? Forced Labour in the Context of Ireland's Globalization and Beyond



Friday 6 April 2018 8.30 - 10.30
X-9 - WOM13 : Women's History Reconstructed
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Karen Offen
Organizers: -Discussant: Karen Offen
Kristina Puljizevic : 19th Century Women in Dubrovnik Archives
Natalia Pushkareva : What did Russian Revolution gave for Women? Russian Scholarship 1917-2017 about Women's Participation and Women's Agency Before and During the Russian Revolution
Maria Sjöberg : Digital Biographies and Gender Blind Historiography: from Particular to General
Lisa Spanka : Gender History in Museums - between Demands for Representation and Thinking about New Ways of Storytelling


Y-9 - WOM25 : Gender and Institutional Care
11UQ/01/010 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Mary O'Dowd
Organizers: -Discussant: Pirjo Markkola
Johanna Annola : Poor Relief Records in England and Finland: the Agency and Experiences of Female Workhouse Staff, 1840–1920
Dragica Cec : Experiences of Old Age among Female Poor–relief Recipients in Ljubljana in First Half of 19th Century
Sarah McHugh : The Institutional Care of Ireland's Elderly Female Population, 1845 - 1908



Friday 6 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00
B-10 - MAT07 : Gender, Status and Consumption
OSCR Lanyon Building
Networks: Material and Consumer Culture , Women and Gender Chair: Ilja Van Damme
Organizers: -Discussants: -
Aris Kafantogias : The Appearance of Vienna’s Middle Classes, Consumption and Group Identity on the Cusp of Industrialization
Iryna Skubii : Ukrainian Male Consumer: between Soviet Ideology and Desire
Merja Uotila : Tailor-made Man. Men’s Clothing in the Early Nineteenth Century Finnish Countryside


O-10 - POL06 : Meet the Author: Karen Offen, The Woman Question in France, 1400 - 1870 and Debating the Woman Question in the French Third Republic, 1870-1920 (Cambridge University Press)
PFC/02/026 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Networks: Politics, Citizenship, and Nations , Women and Gender Chair: Anne Epstein
Organizer: Anne EpsteinDiscussants: Carolyn Eichner, Mary O'Dowd, Jean Pedersen, Sian Reynolds, Florence Rochefort
Karen Offen : The Woman Question in France, 1400 - 1870 and Debating the Woman Question in the French Third Republic, 1870-1920


X-10 - WOM14 : Forgotten Women
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Kirsti Niskanen
Organizers: -Discussant: Maria Sjöberg
Juan Ramón Moreno-Vera , Santiago Ponsoda-López de Atalaya : Woman, War and Art. Women Invisibility during the Napoleonic Occupation of Spain (1807-14): a QR Experience in History Education
Merike Ristikivi : First Estonian Female Lawyers and their Publications



Friday 6 April 2018 14.00 - 16.00
M-11 - ELI12 : Officers and Gentlemen
PFC/02/017 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Networks: Elites and Forerunners , Women and Gender Chair: Marja Vuorinen
Organizers: -Discussant: Jacopo Lorenzini
Tuula Okkonen : Protecting and Preserving Cultural Heritage in the Context of WWII and an Example of an Exceptional Expert
Konstantinos Raptis : Aristocratic Masculinities in Late 19th and Early 20th Century Central Europe
Alex Snellman : Uniformed Elites: Civil Uniforms as a Form of Imperial Power in Finland 1809–1917
Kati Toivanen : Between two Eras: a Soldier Building the New Autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland
Mikkel Venborg Pedersen : Gentlemen around 1900. Ideals, Culture, Equipment


X-11 - WOM21 : Women's Network
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Helene Carlbäck
Organizers: -Discussant: Helene Carlbäck
Vera Bianchi : The Anarchist Women's Groups Syndikalistischer Frauenbund (Syndicalist Women's Union) and Mujeres Libres (Free Women) in the Interwar Period.
Susanna Erlandsson : Gendered Diplomacy in World War II London
Georgeta Nazarska : Social Networks of Educated Female Elites in Bulgaria (first half of 20th century)



Friday 6 April 2018 16.30 - 18.30
E-12 - WOM16 : Modelling the Body: Gender, Representation and Consumtion
MAP/OG/006 Maths and Physics
Networks: Material and Consumer Culture , Women and Gender Chair: Hanna Kuusi
Organizers: -Discussant: Hanna Kuusi
Matleena Frisk : Consumer Products Shaping Gender in the Mid-20th Century Finland: Disposable Menstrual Products and Men’s Deodorants
Conor Heffernan : Body Work, Empowerment and the Female Form: the Case of Irish Physical Culture
Marina Hilber : Female Bodies in Scholarly Practice. On the Representation of Women in Gynaecological and Obstetric Case Studies (1870-1900)
Charlotte Keighron : Barbara Johnson’s Fashion Album: Dress and Female Identity in England, 1746-1823


X-12 - WOM33 : Roundtable: Gender Revisited: How Do We Use Gender in Academia and Beyond
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Marianna Muravyeva
Organizer: Marianna MuravyevaDiscussants: Marie Bennedahl, Eileen Boris, Karen Offen, Andrea Peto, Raisa Maria Toivo



Saturday 7 April 2018 8.30 - 10.30
T-13 - REL03 : Gender, Religion and Action in Early Modern Europe
PFC/03/011 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Networks: Religion , Women and Gender Chair: Isabel dos Guimarães Sá
Organizer: Silvia EvangelistiDiscussant: Isabel dos Guimarães Sá
Silvia Evangelisti : Imagining Missions in the Early Modern Spanish Empire
Sarah Moran : Women at Work: Financial Administration at the Court Beguinages of the Low Countries


X-13 - WOM17 : Gender Ideologies and Stereotypes
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Andrea Peto
Organizers: -Discussant: Andrea Peto
Audrey Bonvin : Faith, Family and Feminism Gender Expectations and Perceptions through the Revolution of Moral Re-Armament
Emre Güler : Being a Modern Man: Representations of Masculinity In Early Turkish Republican Novels (1924-1951)
Lenka Kratka : From Independence to Dependence and Back – Everyday Life of Czechoslovak Seafarers’ Wives under State Socialism



Saturday 7 April 2018 11.00 - 13.00
E-14 - CRI15 : The Criminal Women
MAP/OG/006 Maths and Physics
Networks: Criminal Justice , Women and Gender Chair: David Churchill
Organizers: -Discussant: David Churchill
Haia Shpayer-Makov : Police Encounters with Women in the Streets of British Cities, 1880-1920
Jo Turner : Discharged Prisoners’ Aid Societies: Assisting Women Leaving Prison in Late Nineteenth Century England
Charlotte Wildman : Deviant Domesticity: Gender, Crime and the Family in Britain, 1918-1979


U-14 - WOM24 : Gender, Migration and Mobility
PFC/03/017 Sir Peter Froggatt Centre
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Kristina Hodelin-ter Wal
Organizers: -Discussant: Kristina Hodelin-ter Wal
Carolyn Eichner : Reconceptualizing Frenchness: Feminists and Late 19th-Century Global Empire"
Allyson Hobbs : Safe Travels: African American Women and the Myth of the “Open Road” in Mid- Twentieth Century America
Conchi Villar : Female Immigration in an Industrial City of Southern Europe, Barcelona 1930


X-14 - WOM18 : Oral Histories and Representaion of Women's Work
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Network: Women and Gender Chair: Lessie Jo Frazier
Organizers: -Discussants: -
Eloisa Betti , Liliosa Azara : Women and Mines in Sardinia Island (1920-1970): Archives, Oral History and Audio-visual Sources
Pilar Dominguez Prats : The Representation of Labor in the International Labor Organization (ILO) through Autobiographical Accounts of two Union Leaders Women
Nicola Hille : Gender and Memory: Marie Curie, Lise Meitner, Hedy Lamarr



Saturday 7 April 2018 14.00 - 16.00
X-15 - WOM19 : LGBTQI and Same-sex Marriage
6UQ/OG/006 University Square
Networks: Sexuality , Women and Gender Chair: Marianna Muravyeva
Organizers: -Discussant: Marianna Muravyeva
Jacobus A. Du Pisani : The Constitution, Churches and Gay Rights: South African Case Studies
Martin J. Goessl : Acceptable vs. Impossible: the Legal Introduction of a Same-sex Partnership Law in Austria and the Normative Power of Defining Political Positions
Sylvie Lausberg : Asymmetry between Belgian Laws on LGBT Rights and Abortion Legislation with Comparative Analysis of Neighbouring Countries. Why Belgium should Repeal Abortion of the Penal Code
Hanna Markusson Winkvist , Eva Borgström : Female Couples in the Swedish Women's Movement